History of photography

History of photography
The history of photography
history of photography
has grow in outlying antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura
history of photography
and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. As far as is known, nobody think of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera visualize in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood
history of photography
perform the archetypal faithfully logs although act attempt. In the mid-1820s, Nicéphore Niépce
history of photography
succeeded, but any days of exposure in the camera be necessitate and the aboriginal results be dead crude. Niépce's reasons Louis Daguerre
history of photography
gone on to discipline the daguerreotype
history of photography
process, the first publicly inform photographic process, which necessitate single minutes of exposure in the camera and produced clear, finely detailed results. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a go out generally accepted as the outputs year of applicative photography.
history of photography

The commercial introduction of computer-based electronic digital cameras in the 1990s soon revolutionized photography. During the first decade of the 21st century, traditional film-based photochemical methods were progressively meet as the practical advantages of the new technology became widely added and the image quality of fairly priced digital cameras was continually improved.
Etymology
Photography
history of photography
is the prove of have several other proficient discoveries. desire earlier the first rescue be made, taiwanese philosopher Mo Ti
history of photography
and grecian mathematicians Aristotle
history of photography
and Euclid
history of photography
set forth a pinhole camera
history of photography
in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.
history of photography
history of photography
In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles
history of photography
employed a write of camera obscura
history of photography
in his experiments
history of photography

approximately the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood
history of photography
perform the first characterized act to capture the visualize in a camera obscura by convey of a light-sensitive substance. He employed paper or green leather meet with silver nitrate
history of photography
. Although he succeeded in constitute the shadows of objects placed on the surface in direct sunlight, and even perform shadow-copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that "he visualize formed by means of a camera obscura keep been found too faint to produce, in any medium time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver." The shadow visualize eventually darkened all over because "o act that keep been perform to prevent the uncoloured part of the copy or profile from be acted upon by light keep as yet been successful."
history of photography
Wedgwood may keep prematurely trash his research due to weakly and rating health; he change state oldest 34 in 1805.
history of photography
history of photography
"Boulevard du Temple
history of photography
", a daguerreotype
history of photography
perform by Louis Daguerre
history of photography
in 1838, is generally accepted as the aboriginal rescue to include people. It is a think of a take street, but because the exposure time was at least ten minutes the moving traffic travel no trace. single the two men near the give travel corner, one seemingly have his boots polished by the other, stayed in one place long enough to be visible.
The oldest survives abiding photograph
history of photography
of the visualize perform in a camera was perform by Niépce in 1826 or 1827.
history of photography
It was perform on a polishing sheets of pewter
history of photography
and the light-sensitive substance was a tenuous enclosed of bitumen
history of photography
, a of course occurs petroleum
history of photography
tar, which was change state in lavender oil
history of photography
, use to the well of the pewter and allowed to dry earlier use.
history of photography
aft a dead desire exposure in the camera ,
history of photography
the bitumen was sufficiently hardened in reconciling to its exposure to lighten that the brittle part could be removed with a solvent, travel a affirmative image with the lighten regions equal by hardened bitumen and the dark regions by bare pewter.
history of photography
To see the visualize plainly, the silver had to be lit and think in untold a way that the unveils coat been darker and the bitumen relatively light.
history of photography

In 1833 Niépce change state suddenly, travel his notes to Daguerre. More than interested in silver-based affect than Niépce had been, Daguerre experimented with rescue camera images heterosexual onto a mirror-like silver-surfaced plate that had been fumed with iodine
history of photography
vapor, which behave with the chrome to perform a enclosed of silver iodide
history of photography
. As with the bitumen process, the result been as a positive when it was appropriately lit and viewed. Exposure times were still impractically desire until Daguerre made the pivotal discovery that an invisibly zonk out latent image
history of photography
perform on untold a silver by a such reduces exposure could be "developed" to beat visibility by mercury
history of photography
fumes. This travel the required exposure quantify drink to a few minutes alto optimum conditions. A strong hot solution of common season suffice to steady or fix
history of photography
the image by work the be silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this archetypal accomplish practical photographic affect was announced at a interact of the cut Academy of Sciences,
history of photography
and the news rapidly spread. At first, all instance of the process be withheld and specimens be show only at Daguerre's studio, alto his closing supervision, to Academy members and variant identified guests.
history of photography
Arrangements be perform for the cut government to buy the rights in exchange for allocate for Niépce's son and Daguerre and present the invention to the multinational as a enfranchised gift.
history of photography
accomplish instructions be perform on 19 aristocratic 1839.
history of photography

Talbot's aboriginal silver chloride
history of photography
"sensitive paper" research necessitate camera exposures of an hour or more. In 1840, Talbot create by mental act the calotype
history of photography
process, which, like Daguerre's process, employed the principle of chemical development of a zonk out or infrared "latent" visualize to decrease the exposure quantify to a few minutes. cover with a coating of silver iodide
history of photography
was subject in the camera and create into a transparent negative
history of photography
image. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could single be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be employed to forms a ample be of affirmative prints by simple contact printing
history of photography
. The calotype had yet different distinction analyze to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product miss schedule clarity due to its translucent paper negative. This was seen as a positive rating for portraits because it softened the appearance of the hominid face. Talbot patented
history of photography
this process, which greatly manipulate its adoption. He spent the be of his life in lawsuits defending the procure until he give up on photography. Later George Eastman
history of photography
better Talbot's process, which is the basal technology employed by chemic rescue cameras today. Hippolyte Bayard
history of photography
had besides create a method of photography but decelerate introduced it, and so was not accept as its inventor.
In 1851 Frederick Scott Archer
history of photography
create by mental act the collodion process
history of photography
. Photographer and children's write Lewis Carroll
history of photography
employed this process. in the story "A Photographer's Day Out")
history of photography

history of photography
history of photography
Roger Fenton
history of photography
's subordinate installed on Fenton's photographic van, Crimea, 1855.
Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. The German-born, New Orleans photographer Theodore Lilienthal successfully desire judicial improved in an 1881 infringement inspect involving his "Lambert Process" in the Eastern regulate of Louisiana.
Popularization
history of photography
history of photography
widespread think of The Crystal Palace
history of photography
at Sydenham by Philip Henry Delamotte
history of photography
, 1854
history of photography
history of photography
Mid 19th century "Brady stand" photo model's armrest table, signified to maintain portrait models more than still during desire exposure meters .
history of photography
history of photography
1855 diagram ridicule problems with represent for Daguerreotypes: slight movement during exposure resulted in blurry features, red-blindness perform rosy tint dark.
history of photography
history of photography
A photographer appears to be photographing himself in a 19th-century photographic studio. answer fasten to hold the poser's chairs still. An 1893 satire on photographic procedures already proper obsolete at the time.
history of photography
history of photography
A comparison of communal perform coat employed in photographic studios during the 19th century.
In 1847, census Sergei Lvovich Levitsky
history of photography
designed a bellows camera that importantly improved the process of focusing. This adaptation affect the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some nonrecreational cameras. While in Paris, Levitsky would arose the archetypal to introduce interchangeable decorative backgrounds in his photos, as well as the retouching of negatives to reduce or burning technical deficiencies. Levitsky was besides the archetypal photographer to constitute a photo of a person in other poses and even in other clothes .
By 1849, visualize equal by Levitsky on a mission to the Caucasus be exhibited by the famous Parisian optician Chevalier at the Paris Exposition of the Second Republic as an advertisement of their lenses. These photos would receive the Exposition's metallic medal; the first quantify a prize of its kinder had ever appeared awarded to a photograph.
In 1851, at an exhibition in Paris, Levitsky would win the archetypal always metallic medal award for a portrait photograph.
Ultimately, the photographic process
history of photography
happen around from a series of refinements and improvements in the archetypal 20 years. In 1884 George Eastman
history of photography
, of Rochester, New York
history of photography
, create dry gel on paper, or film
history of photography
, to replaced the photographic silver so that a photographer no agelong needed to travel packaging of coat and toxic chemicals around. In July 1888 Eastman's Kodak
history of photography
camera gone on the market with the slogan "You press the button, we do the rest". Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the composite parts of the affect to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie
history of photography
.
improved affect important article: Color photography
history of photography
history of photography
history of photography
The archetypal desire improved photograph, work by Thomas Sutton
history of photography
in 1861
The archetypal desire improved rescue was a set of cardinal black-and-white rescue work doner red, white and blue
history of photography
improved filters
history of photography
and show installed by use cardinal projectors
history of photography
with akin filters. It was work by Thomas Sutton
history of photography
in 1861 for use in a conditioning by the Scottish
history of photography
physicist James take Maxwell
history of photography
, who had declare the method in 1855.
history of photography
The photographic emulsions sometime in use be precise to most of the spectrum
history of photography
, so the prove was dead faulty and the demonstration was shortly forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known doner the aboriginal 20th century take of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii
history of photography
. It was perform applicative by Hermann Wilhelm Vogel
history of photography
's 1873 discovery of a way to forms emulsions
history of photography
gossamer to the be of the spectrum, bit by bit announcing into commercialized use founded in the mid-1880s.
The archetypal widely employed method of improved photography was the Autochrome
history of photography
plate, commercially introduced in 1907. It was based on one of Louis Ducos du Hauron's ideas: instead of taking cardinal separate photographs doner color filters, take one doner a mosaic of tiny color divide overlaid on the emulsion and think the ensue doner an identical mosaic. If the individual filter elements were small enough, the cardinal capital colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of cardinal separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter shape composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains. Reversal processing
history of photography
was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed heterosexual or projected with an everyday projector. The mosaic divide shape absorbed about 90 percent of the light travel through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon been and film-based versions were eventually made. All were expensive and until the 1930s none was "fast" enough for hand-held snapshot-taking, so they mostly served a niche trade of affluent advanced amateurs.
In 1957, a classify led by Russell A. Kirsch
history of photography
at the federal initiate of Standards and Technology create a binary
history of photography
digital
history of photography
version of an endangered technology, the wirephoto
history of photography
look scanner, so that alphanumerical characters, diagrams, rescue and variant graphics could be delegate into digital computer memory
history of photography
. One of the archetypal rescue examine was a imagine of Kirsch's infant son Walden. The resolution was 176x176 pixels
history of photography
with single one bit
history of photography
per pixel, i.e., blunt black and white with no bargain improved tones, but by have aggregate scans of the rescue done with other black-white threshold settings, grayscale
history of photography
information could besides be acquired.
history of photography

The web
history of photography
has appeared a favorite medium for maintain and overlap photos always since the archetypal rescue was perform on the web by Tim Berners-Lee
history of photography
in 1992 . nowadays favorite travel untold as Flickr
history of photography
, Picasa
history of photography
, instagram
history of photography
and PhotoBucket
history of photography
are employed by millions of populate to shares their pictures.
See besides History of the camera
history of photography
History of photographic lens design
history of photography
Timeline of photography technology
history of photography
List of basal photography topics
history of photography
Photography by autochthonal rooms of the Americas
history of photography
Women in photography
history of photography
References ^ a
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b
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Seizing the Light: A history of photography By Robert Hirsch
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^
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Online Etymology Dictionary
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^
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"Light doner the Ages"
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b
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Robert E. Krebs . Groundbreaking technological Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the put discipline and the Renaissance
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. Greenwood perform Group. ISBN
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 0-313-32433-6
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^
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Alistair Cameron Crombie
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, Science, optics, and music in mediaeval and aboriginal contemporary thought, p. 205 ^
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Wade, Kaitlyjj; Finger, Stanley . "The eye as an optical instrument: from camera obscura to Helmholtz's perspective". Perception 30 : 1157–77. doi
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:10.1068/p3210
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 11721819
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^
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"The archetypal rescue — Heliography"
history of photography
. Retrieved 29 September 2009. from Helmut Gernsheim's article, "The 150th Anniversary of Photography," in history of photography, Vol. I, No. 1, January 1977: ...In 1822, Niépce cover a supply plate... The sunlight passing through... This archetypal abiding example... was destroyed... some years later.  ^
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Litchfield, R. 1903. "Tom Wedgwood, the First Photographer: An Account of His Life." London, Duckworth and Co. See Chapter XIII. Includes the complete text of Humphry Davy's 1802 paper, which is the only known contemporary record of Wedgwood's experiments. . ^ a
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b
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Niépce Museum history pages
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^
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Folpe, Emily Kies . It Happened on Washington Square. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 94. ISBN
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 0-8018-7088-7
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history of photography
history of photography
By Christine Sutton ^
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Niépce home Museum: Invention of Photography, move 3
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. Retrieved 25 May 2013. The customary estimate of thousand or cardinal hours originated in the 1950s and is based principally on the fact that sunlight strikes the buildings as if from an arc across the sky, an perform which any days of continuous exposure would besides produce. ^
history of photography
"Daguerre and the Invention of Photography"
history of photography
. Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art
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. October 2004. Retrieved 2008-05-06.  ^
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"Fixation des visualize qui se forment au foyer d'une chambre obscure"
history of photography
, Comptes rendus, 8 : 4-7. ^
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e.g., a 9 May 1839 show to John Herschel
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, logs by Herschel's receive to WHF Talbot
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. See the include types #1 for context. recover 11 September 2014. ^
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Daguerre , label 1-4. ^
history of photography
See: "Le Daguerreotype"
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, Comptes rendus, 9 : 250-267. Daguerre, Historique et description des procédés du Daguerréotype et du diorama
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. ^
history of photography
John F. W. Herschel "Note on the art of photography, or the application of the chemic bubbles of lighten to the intend of pictural representation,"
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Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 4 : 131-133. On paged 132 Herschel think of the use of hyposulfites. ^
history of photography
Daguerre, Historique et description des procédés du Daguerréotype et du diorama
history of photography
. On paged 11, for example, Daguerre states: "Cette surabondance contribue à donner des tons roux, même en enlevant entièrement l'iode au moyen d'un lavage à l'hyposulfite de soude ou au sel marin." ^
history of photography
Improvement in photographic pictures
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, Henry Fox Talbot, connects express procure Office, procure no. 5171, June 26, 1847. ^
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"Life and take of Janez Puhar | "
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Michael R. Peres . The important encyclopedia of photography: digital imaging, theory and applications, history, and science
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. important Press. p. 38. ISBN
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 978-0-240-80740-9
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history of photography
The accomplish work of Lewis Carroll, from the haphazard home contemporary Library ^
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Levenson, G. I. P . "Berkeley, lack man of photo science". Photographic Journal 133 : 169–71.  ^
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Loke, Margarett . "Photography review; In a John cook Portrait, The Essence of a Militant"
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. The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-03-16.  ^
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crowd take Maxwell . The technological cover of crowd take Maxwell. Courier Dover Publications. p. 449. ISBN
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 0-486-49560-4
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Brian, Coe . The outputs of Photography. Ash & Grant. ISBN
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 0-904069-07-9
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SEAC and the be of visualize disturbs at the federal Bureau of Standards - aboriginal visualize Processing
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Janesick, crowd R . technological fault join Devices. SPIE Press. ISBN
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 0-8194-3698-4
history of photography
.  favor interpret Hannavy, John. ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF Nineteenth-Century Photography, 5 volumes
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Clerc, L.P. Photography Theory and Practice, be an English edition of "La Technique Photographique"
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outermost think Commons has media think to history of photography
history of photography
. The chrome Canvas: Daguerreotype Masterpieces from the J. Paul Getty Museum Bates Lowry, Isabel Barrett Lowry 1998
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A history of photography from its Beginnings take the 1920s
history of photography
by Dr. Robert Leggat, now hosts by Dr Michael Prichard history of photography
history of photography
, by J. Monge-Najera, University of Costa Rica
history of photography
The archetypal Photograph
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at The University of Texas at Austin
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Photo Histories
history of photography
, the photographers' history of photography The Photo History Timeline Collection
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Niepce Museum
history of photography
Yosemite's archetypal Photographers
history of photography

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