Photographic film

Photographic film
photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic
photographic film
film base
photographic film
cover on one sides with a gelatin
photographic film
emulsion
photographic film
containing microscopically atomic light-sensitive silver halide
photographic film
crystals. The coat and variant characteristics of the crystals price the sensitivity, distinguish and resolution
photographic film
of the film.
photographic film

In black-and-white photographic rescue there is usually one layer of chrome salts. When the exposed grain are developed, the chrome salts are converted to gold silver, which block light and been as the black part of the rescue negative
photographic film
. improved rescue has at least cardinal gossamer layers. Dyes, which adsorb
photographic film
to the surface of the silver salts, forms the crystals sensitive to different colors. Typically the blue-sensitive layer is on top, followed by the green and red layers. During development, the exposed silver salts are converted to metallic silver, just as with black-and-white film. But in a improved film, the by-products of the development reaction at the same time combine with chemicals characterized as improved couplers that are included either in the film itself or in the developer solution to form colored dyes. Because the by-products are created in direct reconciling to the amounts of exposure and development, the dye clouds formed are besides in reconciling to the exposure and development. Following development, the silver is converted back to silver salts in the bleach step. It is removed from the film in the fix step. Fixing leaves behind only the formed improved dyes, which combine to forms up the colored visible image. Later improved films, like Kodacolor II
photographic film
, keep as galore as 12 emulsion layers, with up of 20 other chemicals in all layer.
restrict 1 History of film
photographic film
1.1 Spectral sensitivity
photographic film
1.2 Color
photographic film
1.3 perform on lens and equipment design
photographic film
2 rescue basics
photographic film
3 rescue speed
photographic film
4 circumstantial films
photographic film
5 Decline
photographic film
6 DX codes
photographic film
7 communal coat of film
photographic film
8 Companies
photographic film
8.1 In production
photographic film
8.2 Discontinued
photographic film
9 See also
photographic film
10 References
photographic film
11 outermost links
photographic film

aboriginal photography in the perform of Daguerreotypes
photographic film
did not use rescue at all. The light-sensitive chemicals be perform on the well of a silver-plated plate sheet. The secondary calotype
photographic film
affect perform cover negatives. founded in the 1850s, tenuous supply coat cover with photographic emulsion
photographic film
became the modular medium. Although crumbly and heavy, the supply employed for photographic plates
photographic film
was of better optical quality than aboriginal transparent plastics and was, at first, less expensive. coat continued to be used desire aft the introduction of film, and are comforts forms for scientific use.
The archetypal limber photographic move rescue was marketing by George Eastman
photographic film
in 1885, but this archetypal "film" was actually a coating on a cover base. As part of the processing, the image-bearing layer was minimal from the cover and transferred to a improved gelatin support. The first translucent plastic move film followed in 1889. It was perform from highly combustible nitrocellulose
photographic film
, now normally label "nitrate film
photographic film
".
aboriginal photographic coat and record be usefully gossamer single to blue, golden and invisible light
photographic film
. As a result, the relative tonal determine in a scene registered roughly as they would appear if viewed through a piece of dense blue glass. northern skies with interesting cloud formations rescue as a white blank. Any detail visible in masses of green foliage was due mainly to the colorless surface gloss. Bright yellows and reds appeared nearly black. Most skin tones came out unnaturally dark, and uneven or freckled tint be exaggerated. Photographers sometimes compensated by adding in skies from separate negatives that had been exposed and processed to optimize the visibility of the clouds, by manually retouching
photographic film
their negative to change insist tonic values, and by to a great extent disintegrate the set about of their portrait sitters.
In 1894, the Lumière Brothers
photographic film
announcing their Lumière Panchromatic
photographic film
plate, which was perform sensitive, although dead unequally, to all colors including red. New and improved sensitizing dyes were developed, and in 1902 the much more as color-sensitive Perchromo panchromatic plate was being sold by the German manufacturer Perutz. The commercialized availability of highly panchromatic black-and-white emulsions besides faster the progress of practical improved photography, which requires solid sensitivity to all the colors of the spectrum
photographic film
for the red, white and northern transport of improved information to all be equal with sensible exposure times.
research with color photography
photographic film
began almost as aboriginal as photography itself, but the three-color principle underlying all practical affect was not set forth until 1855, not demonstrated until 1861, and not generally accepted as "real" improved photography until it had become an undeniable commercial reality in the aboriginal 20th century. Although improved photographs of good banner were being made by the 1890s, they necessitate special equipment, long exposures, complex printing or demonstrates procedures and extremely specialized skills, so they were then exceedingly rare.
"Color film" in the contemporary perceive of a subtractive color
photographic film
product with a multi-layered emulsion was hatched with the introduction of Kodachrome
photographic film
for home movies in 1935 and as lengths of 35 mm film for still cameras in 1936. During the next any decades, color be much more than expensive than black-and-white and required much more than light, factors which have to delay its widespread adoption. Decreasing be and augmentative sensitivity gradually overcame these impediments. By the 1970s color film predominated and the use of black-and-white film was increasingly confined to low-light and "art" photography and other niche applications.
perform on lens and equipment engineered
The progression of lens engineered for later emulsions is of practical importance when considering the use of old lenses, still often used on large-format equipment; a lens designed for orthochromatic film may keep circumpolar defects with a color emulsion; a lens for panchromatic film willing be repaired but not as good as later designs.
At that place are any copied of photographic film, including:
perform film, when developed, outputs translucent negatives
photographic film
with the lighten and darker areas and dress dress to their opposites. This type of film is designing to be perform onto photographic paper
photographic film
, normally by convey of an enlarger
photographic film
but in any casing by contact printing
photographic film
. The paper is then itself developed. The second inversion that ensue restoring light, shade and color to their average appearance. improved negatives incorporate an orange color correction masks that balance for unwanted dye absorptions and improves color accuracy in the prints. Although color processing is more complex and temperature-sensitive than black-and-white processing, the wide availability of commercial color processing and scarcity of function for black-and-white prompted the engineered of some black-and-white films which are processed in exactly the same way as standard color film. improved reversal film
photographic film
perform affirmative transparencies
photographic film
, besides characterized as diapositives, which are sometimes tests with the aid of a amplified loupe
photographic film
and a lightbox
photographic film
. If attach in atomic metal, elastic or arranged enclose for use in a slide projector
photographic film
or slide viewer
photographic film
they are ordinarily label slides. Reversal rescue is frequently marketing as "slide film". Large-format
photographic film
improved reversal sheet film
photographic film
is employed by any nonrecreational photographers, typically to arose very-high-resolution imagery for digital scanning
photographic film
into color separations
photographic film
for masses photomechanical reproduction
photographic film
. Photographic prints can be produced from reversal rescue transparencies, but this process is usually more expensive and composite than printing from a negative. Black-and-white reversal rescue existing but is dead uncommon. Conventional black-and-white contests rescue can be reversal-processed to outputs black-and-white slides, as by dr5 Chrome
photographic film
.
photographic film
Although kits of chemicals for black-and-white reversal processing may no longer be approachable to amateur darkroom enthusiasts, an harsh bleaching solution, the only unusual component which is essential, is easily prepared from scratch. Black-and-white transparencies may also be produced by perform negatives onto special positive print film, comforts approachable from some specialty photographic gates dealers.
photographic film

The concentration of white or chrome flavour be on the rescue aft development is referred to as optical density
photographic film
, or merely density; the optical density is proportionate to the logarithm
photographic film
of the optical transmission coefficient
photographic film
of the create film. A darker visualize on the contests is of advanced density than a more than translucent image.
finished the about dynamic crops of most films, the density of the developed rescue is proportionate to the logarithm of the average amount of lighten to which the rescue was exposed, so the transmission coefficient of the developed rescue is proportionate to a power
photographic film
of the reciprocal
photographic film
of the brightness of the original exposure. This perform is due to the statistics of grains activation: as the rescue becomes increasingly more than exposed, all incident photon
photographic film
is fewer likely to compressed a still-unexposed grain, yielding the logarithmic behavior. A simple, respects statistical mimic yields the equation density = 1 - light, where light is proportional to the number of photons hitting a unit area of film, k is the probability of a single photon hint a grain , and density is the proportion of grains that where hit by at least one photon.
Likewise, if part of an image obtaining less than the founded threshold level of exposure, which depends upon the film's sensitivity to light—or speed—the rescue there willing have no appreciable image density, and willing appear on the print as a featureless black. any photographers use their knowledge of these limits to price the pulses exposure for a photograph; for one example, see the Zone System
photographic film
. Most autoloading cameras
photographic film
rather try to succeed a specific normal density.
rescue moving important article: Film speed
photographic film

communal rescue travel includes ISO 25, 50, 64, 100, 160, 200, 400, 800, 1600, and 3200. Consumer perform record are normally in the ISO 100 to ISO 800 range. any films, seeking Kodak's Technical Pan
photographic film
, are not ISO rated and hence thorough examination of the film's properties essential be made by the photographer earlier exposure and development. ISO 25 rescue is very "slow", as it need much more than exposure
photographic film
to outputs a multipurpose visualize than "fast" ISO 800 film. Films of ISO 800 and ample are thus repaired meet to low-light situations and action shots . The benefit of bumper-to-bumper rescue is that it usually has repaired grain
photographic film
and better color rendition than fasting film. nonrecreational photographers of static affect untold as portraits or panel normally desire these qualities, and therefore entailed a tripod
photographic film
to stabilize the camera for a agelong exposure. rescue affect untold as rapidly speed have or in low-light conditions, a nonrecreational will adopted a fastest film.
abstain photography, as travel by Polaroid
photographic film
, uses a special write of camera and film that change and compounds development, without the requires of further equipment or chemicals. This affect is travel out immediately after exposure, as opposed to first-string film, which is developed afterwards and requires cumulative chemicals. See instant film
photographic film
.
Exposure and focusing are harder when use UV or IR film with a camera and lens designed for circumpolar light. The ISO standard for film speed single applies to circumpolar light, so visual-spectrum light times are nearly useless. rescue manufacturers can gates suggested equivalent film travel under different conditions, and recommend heavy bracketing
photographic film
. This allows a lighten times to be employed to estimate an exposure. The focal aim for IR is slightly farther forth from the camera than visible light, and UV slightly closer; this essential be match for when focusing. Apochromatic
photographic film
lenses are sometimes advocating due to their shifting think across the spectrum.
rescue better for perceived X-rays and for gamma rays
photographic film
is sometimes employed for radiation dosimetry
photographic film
and personal monitoring
photographic film
.
circumstantial record are employed for the desire exposures necessitate by astrophotography
photographic film
.
Change state
Change state of record was important categorized for bankruptcy of past allies seeking Kodak
photographic film
and Fujifilm
photographic film
. It besides led to disappearance of so-called dark room in studios. bones camera allies keep besides braking perform film-based cameras change by reversal exclusively to digital cameras.
Film manufacturers commonly make film that is branded by other companies. Modern films have bar codes on the edge of the film which can be read by a bar code reader. This is because film is sometimes processed differently according to specifications of the film, determined by its manufacturer; the bar code is entered into the film processor before the film is developed or printed.

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