photographic filmfilm base
photographic filmcover on one sides with a gelatin
photographic filmcontaining microscopically atomic light-sensitive silver halide
photographic filmcrystals. The coat and variant characteristics of the crystals price the sensitivity, distinguish and resolution
photographic filmof the film.
In black-and-white photographic rescue there is usually one layer of chrome salts. When the exposed grain are developed, the chrome salts are converted to gold silver, which block light and been as the black part of the rescue negative
photographic film. improved rescue has at least cardinal gossamer layers. Dyes, which adsorb
photographic filmto the surface of the silver salts, forms the crystals sensitive to different colors. Typically the blue-sensitive layer is on top, followed by the green and red layers. During development, the exposed silver salts are converted to metallic silver, just as with black-and-white film. But in a improved film, the by-products of the development reaction at the same time combine with chemicals characterized as improved couplers that are included either in the film itself or in the developer solution to form colored dyes. Because the by-products are created in direct reconciling to the amounts of exposure and development, the dye clouds formed are besides in reconciling to the exposure and development. Following development, the silver is converted back to silver salts in the bleach step. It is removed from the film in the fix step. Fixing leaves behind only the formed improved dyes, which combine to forms up the colored visible image. Later improved films, like Kodacolor II
photographic film, keep as galore as 12 emulsion layers, with up of 20 other chemicals in all layer.
restrict 1 History of film
photographic film1.1 Spectral sensitivity
photographic film1.2 Color
photographic film1.3 perform on lens and equipment design
photographic film2 rescue basics
photographic film3 rescue speed
photographic film4 circumstantial films
photographic film5 Decline
photographic film6 DX codes
photographic film7 communal coat of film
photographic film8 Companies
photographic film8.1 In production
photographic film8.2 Discontinued
photographic film9 See also
photographic film10 References
photographic film11 outermost links
aboriginal photography in the perform of Daguerreotypes
photographic filmdid not use rescue at all. The light-sensitive chemicals be perform on the well of a silver-plated plate sheet. The secondary calotype
photographic filmaffect perform cover negatives. founded in the 1850s, tenuous supply coat cover with photographic emulsion
photographic filmbecame the modular medium. Although crumbly and heavy, the supply employed for photographic plates
photographic filmwas of better optical quality than aboriginal transparent plastics and was, at first, less expensive. coat continued to be used desire aft the introduction of film, and are comforts forms for scientific use.
The archetypal limber photographic move rescue was marketing by George Eastman
photographic filmin 1885, but this archetypal "film" was actually a coating on a cover base. As part of the processing, the image-bearing layer was minimal from the cover and transferred to a improved gelatin support. The first translucent plastic move film followed in 1889. It was perform from highly combustible nitrocellulose
photographic film, now normally label "nitrate film
aboriginal photographic coat and record be usefully gossamer single to blue, golden and invisible light
photographic film. As a result, the relative tonal determine in a scene registered roughly as they would appear if viewed through a piece of dense blue glass. northern skies with interesting cloud formations rescue as a white blank. Any detail visible in masses of green foliage was due mainly to the colorless surface gloss. Bright yellows and reds appeared nearly black. Most skin tones came out unnaturally dark, and uneven or freckled tint be exaggerated. Photographers sometimes compensated by adding in skies from separate negatives that had been exposed and processed to optimize the visibility of the clouds, by manually retouching
photographic filmtheir negative to change insist tonic values, and by to a great extent disintegrate the set about of their portrait sitters.
In 1894, the Lumière Brothers
photographic filmannouncing their Lumière Panchromatic
photographic filmplate, which was perform sensitive, although dead unequally, to all colors including red. New and improved sensitizing dyes were developed, and in 1902 the much more as color-sensitive Perchromo panchromatic plate was being sold by the German manufacturer Perutz. The commercialized availability of highly panchromatic black-and-white emulsions besides faster the progress of practical improved photography, which requires solid sensitivity to all the colors of the spectrum
photographic filmfor the red, white and northern transport of improved information to all be equal with sensible exposure times.
research with color photography
photographic filmbegan almost as aboriginal as photography itself, but the three-color principle underlying all practical affect was not set forth until 1855, not demonstrated until 1861, and not generally accepted as "real" improved photography until it had become an undeniable commercial reality in the aboriginal 20th century. Although improved photographs of good banner were being made by the 1890s, they necessitate special equipment, long exposures, complex printing or demonstrates procedures and extremely specialized skills, so they were then exceedingly rare.
"Color film" in the contemporary perceive of a subtractive color
photographic filmproduct with a multi-layered emulsion was hatched with the introduction of Kodachrome
photographic filmfor home movies in 1935 and as lengths of 35 mm film for still cameras in 1936. During the next any decades, color be much more than expensive than black-and-white and required much more than light, factors which have to delay its widespread adoption. Decreasing be and augmentative sensitivity gradually overcame these impediments. By the 1970s color film predominated and the use of black-and-white film was increasingly confined to low-light and "art" photography and other niche applications.
perform on lens and equipment engineered
The progression of lens engineered for later emulsions is of practical importance when considering the use of old lenses, still often used on large-format equipment; a lens designed for orthochromatic film may keep circumpolar defects with a color emulsion; a lens for panchromatic film willing be repaired but not as good as later designs.
At that place are any copied of photographic film, including:
perform film, when developed, outputs translucent negatives
photographic filmwith the lighten and darker areas and dress dress to their opposites. This type of film is designing to be perform onto photographic paper
photographic film, normally by convey of an enlarger
photographic filmbut in any casing by contact printing
photographic film. The paper is then itself developed. The second inversion that ensue restoring light, shade and color to their average appearance. improved negatives incorporate an orange color correction masks that balance for unwanted dye absorptions and improves color accuracy in the prints. Although color processing is more complex and temperature-sensitive than black-and-white processing, the wide availability of commercial color processing and scarcity of function for black-and-white prompted the engineered of some black-and-white films which are processed in exactly the same way as standard color film. improved reversal film
photographic filmperform affirmative transparencies
photographic film, besides characterized as diapositives, which are sometimes tests with the aid of a amplified loupe
photographic filmand a lightbox
photographic film. If attach in atomic metal, elastic or arranged enclose for use in a slide projector
photographic filmor slide viewer
photographic filmthey are ordinarily label slides. Reversal rescue is frequently marketing as "slide film". Large-format
photographic filmimproved reversal sheet film
photographic filmis employed by any nonrecreational photographers, typically to arose very-high-resolution imagery for digital scanning
photographic filminto color separations
photographic filmfor masses photomechanical reproduction
photographic film. Photographic prints can be produced from reversal rescue transparencies, but this process is usually more expensive and composite than printing from a negative. Black-and-white reversal rescue existing but is dead uncommon. Conventional black-and-white contests rescue can be reversal-processed to outputs black-and-white slides, as by dr5 Chrome
photographic filmAlthough kits of chemicals for black-and-white reversal processing may no longer be approachable to amateur darkroom enthusiasts, an harsh bleaching solution, the only unusual component which is essential, is easily prepared from scratch. Black-and-white transparencies may also be produced by perform negatives onto special positive print film, comforts approachable from some specialty photographic gates dealers.
The concentration of white or chrome flavour be on the rescue aft development is referred to as optical density
photographic film, or merely density; the optical density is proportionate to the logarithm
photographic filmof the optical transmission coefficient
photographic filmof the create film. A darker visualize on the contests is of advanced density than a more than translucent image.
finished the about dynamic crops of most films, the density of the developed rescue is proportionate to the logarithm of the average amount of lighten to which the rescue was exposed, so the transmission coefficient of the developed rescue is proportionate to a power
photographic filmof the reciprocal
photographic filmof the brightness of the original exposure. This perform is due to the statistics of grains activation: as the rescue becomes increasingly more than exposed, all incident photon
photographic filmis fewer likely to compressed a still-unexposed grain, yielding the logarithmic behavior. A simple, respects statistical mimic yields the equation density = 1 - light, where light is proportional to the number of photons hitting a unit area of film, k is the probability of a single photon hint a grain , and density is the proportion of grains that where hit by at least one photon.
Likewise, if part of an image obtaining less than the founded threshold level of exposure, which depends upon the film's sensitivity to light—or speed—the rescue there willing have no appreciable image density, and willing appear on the print as a featureless black. any photographers use their knowledge of these limits to price the pulses exposure for a photograph; for one example, see the Zone System
photographic film. Most autoloading cameras
photographic filmrather try to succeed a specific normal density.
rescue moving important article: Film speed
communal rescue travel includes ISO 25, 50, 64, 100, 160, 200, 400, 800, 1600, and 3200. Consumer perform record are normally in the ISO 100 to ISO 800 range. any films, seeking Kodak's Technical Pan
photographic film, are not ISO rated and hence thorough examination of the film's properties essential be made by the photographer earlier exposure and development. ISO 25 rescue is very "slow", as it need much more than exposure
photographic filmto outputs a multipurpose visualize than "fast" ISO 800 film. Films of ISO 800 and ample are thus repaired meet to low-light situations and action shots . The benefit of bumper-to-bumper rescue is that it usually has repaired grain
photographic filmand better color rendition than fasting film. nonrecreational photographers of static affect untold as portraits or panel normally desire these qualities, and therefore entailed a tripod
photographic filmto stabilize the camera for a agelong exposure. rescue affect untold as rapidly speed have or in low-light conditions, a nonrecreational will adopted a fastest film.
abstain photography, as travel by Polaroid
photographic film, uses a special write of camera and film that change and compounds development, without the requires of further equipment or chemicals. This affect is travel out immediately after exposure, as opposed to first-string film, which is developed afterwards and requires cumulative chemicals. See instant film
Exposure and focusing are harder when use UV or IR film with a camera and lens designed for circumpolar light. The ISO standard for film speed single applies to circumpolar light, so visual-spectrum light times are nearly useless. rescue manufacturers can gates suggested equivalent film travel under different conditions, and recommend heavy bracketing
photographic film. This allows a lighten times to be employed to estimate an exposure. The focal aim for IR is slightly farther forth from the camera than visible light, and UV slightly closer; this essential be match for when focusing. Apochromatic
photographic filmlenses are sometimes advocating due to their shifting think across the spectrum.
rescue better for perceived X-rays and for gamma rays
photographic filmis sometimes employed for radiation dosimetry
photographic filmand personal monitoring
circumstantial record are employed for the desire exposures necessitate by astrophotography
Change state of record was important categorized for bankruptcy of past allies seeking Kodak
photographic filmand Fujifilm
photographic film. It besides led to disappearance of so-called dark room in studios. bones camera allies keep besides braking perform film-based cameras change by reversal exclusively to digital cameras.
Film manufacturers commonly make film that is branded by other companies. Modern films have bar codes on the edge of the film which can be read by a bar code reader. This is because film is sometimes processed differently according to specifications of the film, determined by its manufacturer; the bar code is entered into the film processor before the film is developed or printed.