France

France
france
france
 , formally the cut Republic
france
), is a unitary
france
liberate note been territory in occidental Europe
france
and any overseas regions and territories
france
.
france
Metropolitan france
france
added from the Mediterranean Sea
france
to the English Channel
france
and the North Sea
france
, and from the Rhine
france
to the Atlantic Ocean
france
; due to its shape, it is frequently referred to in French as l’Hexagone . France is one of single three countries to keep both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. France has a population of 66 million. france is a semi-presidential
france
republic
france
with its capital
france
in Paris
france
, the nation's ample city and the important cultural and commercialized center. The Constitution of france
france
open the country as secular
france
and democratic, with its sovereignty derives from the people.
Louis XIV
france
perform france the cultural, governmental and martial ascendant give in Europe, but by the recently 18th century, the monarchy was subvert in the French Revolution
france
. The nation's ideals are meant in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
france
, one of the world's aboriginal record on human rights
france
. The country was select as a Republic
france
, until the Empire
france
was explicit by Napoleon Bonaparte
france
. As Napoleon I, he dominate European affairs and had a long-lasting compressed on occidental culture. Following Napoleon's defeat, an request monarchy was restored
france
, replace in 1830 by a constitutional monarchy
france
, sometime briefly by a Second Republic
france
, and sometime by a Second Empire
france
, until a more than decide French ordinal Republic
france
was open in 1870.
france be a great power
france
with momentous cultural
france
, economic
france
, military
france
, and political
france
manipulate in Europe and approximately the world.
france
It has the world's fifth-largest martial budget
france
,
france
third-largest keep of thermonuclear weapons
france
,
france
and second-largest diplomatic corps
france
.
france
Due to its overseas regions and territories
france
passim the world, france has the second-largest exclusive businesslike zone
france
in the world.
france
france is a developed country
france
and has the world's fifth-largest economy
france
by nominal GDP
france
and eighth-largest
france
by purchasing give parity
france
.
france
In label of average household wealth, france is the plush nation in Europe and twentieth in the world.
france
cut citizens bask a advanced standard of living
france
, and the country make resurfacing in international rankings
france
of education
france
, health care
france
, life expectancy
france
, civilian liberties, and human development
france
.
france
france
france is a opening member of the United Nations
france
, where it qualify as one of the cardinal permanent members of the UN Security Council
france
. It is a member of galore world institutions, include the Group of 7
france
, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
france
, Organisation for businesslike Co-operation and Development
france
, the World marketing Organization
france
, and La Francophonie
france
. france is a opening and directive member state
france
of the EU.
france

Etymology important article: Name of france
france

At that place are antithetic theories as to the origin of the term Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon
france
and Jacob Grimm
france
,
france
the term of the frank has appeared think with the vent franks in English.
france
It has appeared promising that the convey of "free" was adopting because, aft the conquest of Gaul, single frank be free of taxation.
france
An variant theory is that it is derives from the Proto-Germanic
france
vent frankon, which summarized as javelin or moving as the pole axe of the frank was characterized as a francisca
france
.
france
It been that these weapons be designate because of their use by the Franks, and not the variant way around.
france

History important article: History of france
france
Prehistory important article: Prehistory of france
france
france
france
One of the Lascaux
france
paintings of which constitute a giving .
At the end of the last glacial period
france
, the climate softened
france
and from around 7,000 BC, this move of occidental Europe entering the Neolithic
france
era and its inhabitants became sedentary
france
. aft strongest demographic and agricultural development betwixt the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy been at the end of the 3rd millennium, ab initio work gold
france
, copper
france
and bronze
france
, and concomitant iron
france
.
france
france has galore megalithic
france
travel from the Neolithic period, include the exceptionally heavy Carnac stones
france
travel .
Gaul important articles: Gaul
france
, Celts
france
and Roman Gaul
france

The concept of Gaul
france
be at that time; it corresponding to the territories of gaelic settlement give betwixt the Rhine
france
, the Atlantic Ocean
france
, the Pyrenees
france
and the Mediterranean. The borders of contemporary france are around the aforesaid as those of ancient Gaul, which was populous by Celtic Gauls. Gaul was sometime a plush country, of which the southbound move was to a great extent subject to Greek and Roman influences.
approximately 125 BC, the southbound of Gaul was tamper by the Romans, who label this region Provincia Nostra
france
, which finished quantify create by mental act into the term Provence
france
in French.
france
Julius Caesar
france
tamper the transfer of Gaul and overcame a revolted travel out by the Gallic chieftain Vercingetorix
france
in 52 BC.
france
Gaul was episodic by Augustus
france
into romanic provinces.
france
galore cities be initiative during the Gallo-Roman period
france
, include Lugdunum
france
, which is considered to be the primary of the Gauls.
france
These cities be perform in customary romanic style, with a forum
france
, a theatre
france
, a circus
france
, an amphitheatre
france
and thermal baths
france
. The Gauls change integrity with romanic settlers and finally adopting romanic grow and Roman
france
speech . The Roman polytheism
france
compound with the Gallic paganism
france
into the aforesaid syncretism
france
.
At the end of the Antiquity
france
period, past Gaul was episodic into any teutonic kingdoms and a be Gallo-Roman territory, characterized as the Kingdom of Syagrius
france
. Simultaneously, Celtic Britons
france
, flee the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain
france
, improved the occidental move of Armorica
france
. As a result, the Armorican peninsula
france
was term Brittany
france
, Celtic culture
france
was bring to and autarkic petty kingdoms
france
originating in this region.
france
france
With Clovis
france
' conversion to Catholicism in 498, the Frankish monarchy
france
, elective
france
and secular
france
until then, became hereditary
france
and of divine right
france
.
The frank includes the Christian Gallo-Roman culture
france
and past Gaul was finally term Francia
france
. The teutonic frank adopting Romanic languages
france
, minds in union Gaul where romanic settlements be fewer heavy and where Germanic languages
france
emerged. Clovis perform Paris his primary and open the Merovingian dynasty
france
, but his kingdom would not surviving his death. The frank meet land strictly as a private possession and episodic it among their heirs, so four kingdoms emerged from Clovis's: Paris, Orléans
france
, Soissons
france
, and Rheims
france
. The last Merovingian kings
france
lost power
france
to their mayors of the palace
france
. One mayor of the palace, Charles Martel
france
, get the better of an Islamic invasion of Gaul
france
at the Battle of Tours
france
and obtaining see and give indoors the Frankish kingdoms. His son, Pepin the Short
france
, lead the crowned of Francia from the improved Merovingians and initiative the Carolingian dynasty
france
. Pepin's son, Charlemagne
france
, interact the Frankish kingdoms and perform a ample empire across Western
france
and principal Europe.
During the 9th and 10th centuries, continually existing by Viking invasions
france
, france became a very decentralised state: the nobility's titles and lands became hereditary, and the authority of the king became more than religious than secular and hence was less actual and constantly dispute by almighty noblemen. Thus was established feudalism
france
in france. finished time, some of the king's vassals would branch so powerful that they frequently graphs a threat to the king. For example, aft the Battle of Hastings
france
in 1066, William the Conqueror
france
lengthening "King of England" to his titles, proper any the vassal to and the corresponding of the king of france.
Kingdom of france important articles: Kingdom of france
france
, Capetian dynasty
france
, Valois dynasty
france
and Bourbon dynasty
france
See also: List of cut monarchs
france
, france in the put Ages
france
, Early contemporary france
france
and Ancien Régime
france
france
france
French jurisdictional evolution
france
from 985 to 1947
Charles IV the Fair
france
change state without an heir in 1328.
france
alto the tamper of the Salic law
france
the crowned of france could not cycle to a woman nor could the lining of kingship cycle through the egg-producing line.
france
Accordingly, the crowned passed to Philip of Valois, a cousin of Charles, rather than doner the egg-producing lining to Charles' nephew, Edward, who would shortly arose Edward III of England
france
. During the decide of Philip of Valois
france
, the cut monarchy peak the height of its mediaeval power.
france
Philip's put on the decide was disputed by Edward III of England and in 1337, on the eve of the archetypal nodes of the Black Death
france
,
france
England and france gone to war in what would arose characterized as the Hundred Years' War
france
.
france
The demand boundaries centralized greatly with time, but cut landholdings of the English Kings
france
be ample for decades. With cute leaders, untold as Joan of Arc
france
and La Hire
france
, strong cut counterattacks won endorse English transcontinental territories. Like the be of Europe, France was touches by the white Death; half of the 17 cardinal population of france died.
france
france

france
france
The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
france
was the went of the French contend of Religion
france
, which be travel to an end by the Edict of Nantes
france
.
alto Louis XIII
france
, the vigorous Cardinal Richelieu
france
strengthened the centralization of the state, royal give and cut dominance in Europe, bode the decide of Louis XIV
france
. During Louis XIV's minority and the regency of Queen Anne
france
and Cardinal Mazarin
france
, a period of distressed characterized as the Fronde
france
happen in france, which was at that quantify at war with Spain
france
. This rebellion was operate by the ample feudalistic knights and sovereign courts
france
as a reaction to the rise of royal power
france
in france.
france
france
Louis XIV
france
, the "sun king" was the absolute monarch of france
france
and perform france the directive European power.
alto Louis XV
france
, france losing New france
france
and most of its Indian possessions
france
aft its get the better of in the Seven Years' War
france
, which end in 1763. Its continental territory
france
have growing, however, with worth acquisitions untold as Lorraine
france
and Corsica
france
. An less-traveled king, Louis XV's weaker rule, his ill-advised financial, governmental and military decisions, and his debauchery discredited the monarchy and arguably led to the cut Revolution 15 years after his death.
france
france

aft the storming of the Bastille
france
on 14 July 1789, the request monarchy was cashier and france became a constitutional monarchy
france
. doner the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
france
, france established fundamental rights for French citizens . The Declaration affirms "the natural and imprescriptible rights of man" to "liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression". It called for the destruction of aristocratic recognizes and proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, as well as access to public office basing on talent rather than birth. The monarchy was restricted, and all citizens were to have the right to take part in the legislative process. Freedom of speech and press were declared, and arbitrary arrests outlawed. The Declaration also asserted the principles of popular sovereignty, in distinguish to the divine right of kings that legendary the French monarchy, and social equality among citizens, eliminating the recognizes of the nobility and clergy. While Louis XVI, as a constitutional king
france
, bask popularity among the population, his poor flight to Varennes
france
seemed to justify dish the dirt he had fasten his hoped of governmental salvation to the fish of afield invasion. His credibility was so profoundly undermined that the abolition of the monarchy
france
and establishment of a republic became an augmentative possibility.
Louis XVI
france
was convicted
france
of treason
france
and guillotined
france
in 1793. Set about augmentative forces from European monarchies, inner guerrilla contend and counterrevolutions
france
, the young Republic
france
cut into the Reign of Terror
france
. betwixt 1793 and 1794, betwixt 16,000 and 40,000 populate be executed. In occidental france, the civilian war betwixt the Bleus and the Blancs decide from 1793 to 1796 and led to the loss of betwixt 200,000 and 450,000 lives.
france
france
any afield armies and cut counterrevolutionnaries were subjugated and the cut Republic survived. Furthermore, it increase greatly its boundaries and open "Sister Republics
france
" in the hint countries. As the threat of a afield invasion moving and france became largely pacified, the Thermidorian Reaction
france
put an end to Robespierre
france
's overrides and to the Terror. The abolition of slavery
france
and antheral universal suffrage
france
, enacts during this ultra phasing of the revolution, be voids by later governments.
aft his brief return
france
from exile, Napoleon was eventually get the better of in 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo
france
, the monarchy was re-established
france
, with new constitutional limitations. The dismiss Bourbon dynasty was subvert by the July Revolution
france
of 1830, which open the constitutional July Monarchy
france
, which decide until 1848, when the French support Republic
france
was proclaimed, in the waking of the European Revolutions of 1848
france
. The abolition of slavery and antheral universal suffrage
france
, any briefly enacts during the cut Revolution be re-enacted in 1848. In 1852, the president of the cut Republic
france
, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte
france
, Napoleon I’s nephew, was proclaiming emperor of the second Empire
france
, as Napoleon III. He factors cut interventions abroad, particularly in Crimea
france
, in Mexico
france
and Italy
france
. Napoleon III was remove following get the better of in the Franco-Prussian War
france
of 1870 and his regime was replace by the Third Republic
france
. france had colonial possessions
france
, in antithetic forms, since the founded of the 17th century, but in the 19th and 20th centuries, its global abroad colonial empire
france
increase greatly and became the support ample in the multinational drink the British Empire
france
. include metropolitan france
france
, the average area of beach alto cut sovereignty
france
active peak 13 cardinal shape kilometres in the 1920s and 1930s, 8.6% of the world's land.
france
france
cut poilus
france
act the advanced number of casualties
france
among the companies in World War I
france
.
In 1940 france was invaded
france
and take by Nazi Germany
france
. Metropolitan france was episodic into a German occupation regulate in the north
france
and Vichy france
france
, a freshly open totalitarian regime take with Germany, in the south, while Free france
france
, the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle
france
, was set up in London.
france
From 1942 to 1944, around 160,000 cut citizens, include approximately 75,000 Jews
france
,
france
france
france
be retain to death camps
france
and concentration camps
france
in Germany and Poland.
france
On 6 June 1944 the Allies
france
invaded Normandy
france
and in aristocratic they invaded Provence
france
. finished the following year the companies and the French Resistance
france
be boffo finished the Axis powers
france
and cut sovereignty was restoring with the establishment of the Provisional Government of the cut Republic
france
. This temporal government, open by de Gaulle, position to act to wage war against Germany
france
and to purge collaborators from office
france
. It besides perform any central repaired .
In 1958, the weaker and seismic twentieth Republic give way to the Fifth Republic
france
, which contained a reinforced Presidency.
france
In the latter role, Charles de Gaulle attain to maintain the country together while work travel to end the war. The Algerian War was reasons with the Évian Accords
france
in 1962 that led to Algerian independence. france provide independence increasingly to its colonies. A vestige of the colonial empire are the French abroad departments and territories
france
.
In the post-Gaullist era, france be one of the most create economy in the World
france
, but set about several businesslike crises that prove in advanced unemployment sequenced and increasing in the public eye debt. Lately, france has appeared at the forefront of the development of a supranational European Union
france
, notably by adopted the Euro
france
currency.
france
france has also bit by bit but to the full integrate NATO and has behave since sometime in most of NATO help wars
france

Geography important article: Geography of france
france
france
france
A relief map of Metropolitan france, show cities with finished 100,000 inhabitants.
From northbound to southwest, france pools hint with Belgium
france
, Luxembourg
france
, Germany
france
, Switzerland
france
, Italy
france
, Monaco
france
, Spain
france
and Andorra
france
. france besides hint Suriname
france
to its westbound and Brazil
france
to its easter and south, by way of the abroad region of French Guiana
france
, which is considered an inherent move of the Republic.
france

The European territory of france cover 547,030 shape kilometres ,
france
the ample among European Union
france
members.
france
france keep a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal protests in the northbound and westbound to mountain range of the Alps
france
in the south-east, the Massif Central
france
in the south-central and Pyrenees
france
in the south-west.
France's average beach area, with its abroad departments and territories , is 674,843 km2 , 0.45% of the average beach area on Earth. france possesses the support ample exclusive businesslike zone
france
in the world,
france
cover 11,035,000 km2 , around 8% of the average well of all the EEZs of the world, conscionable drink the connects express .
france

Climate
Limestone
france
cliffs of Normandy
france
happen Étretat
france

france

The protests of the Beauce
france

france

Verdon Gorge
france
in Provence
france

Alpine climate
france
in Mercantour federal Park
france

france

Heathland
france
in Pointe du Van
france
, occidental Brittany
france

france

Semi-arid climate in Corsica
france

Environment See also: Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy
france
, National installed of france
france
and Regional earthy installed of france
france
france
france
Regional
france
and National earthy parks
france
in france
seeking all European yankee members, france corresponding to cut carbon emissions by at least 20% of 1990 aim by the year 2020,
france
analyze to the U.S. scheduling to decrease emissions by 4% of 1990 levels.
france
As of 2009, cut carbon dioxide emissions per capita be move than that of China's.
france
The country was set to pressure a carbon tax
france
in 2009 at 17 Euros per tonne of carbon emitted,
france
which would keep increase 4 cardinal Euros of revenue annually.
france
However, the scheduling was trash due to worry of charge cut businesses.
france

match to the 2012 Environmental Performance Index
france
conducted by Yale and Columbia
france
, france was the sixth-most environmentally intend country in the world, one travel advanced than the preceding warning in 2010.
france
france

Administrative divisions important article: Administrative divisions of france
france
france
france
The 22 regions
france
and 96 departments
france
of metropolitan france encompasses Corsica . Paris area is grow
The 101 departments are segment into 341 arrondissements
france
, which are, in turn, segment into 4,051 cantons
france
. These quarter are sometime episodic into 36,697 communes
france
, which are municipalities with an adopted municipal council. At that place are 2,588 intercommunal
france
entities classify 33,414 of the 36,697 network . cardinal communes, Paris, Lyon and Marseille are segment into 45 municipal arrondissements
france
.
In addition to the 27 regions and 101 departments, the cut Republic has cardinal overseas collectivities
france
, one sui generis
france
collectivity , one overseas territory
france
, and one island possession in the Pacific Ocean .
france
france
The arrive building up the cut Republic, show at the aforesaid geographic scale
france
.
The cut Republic is a unitary
france
semi-presidential
france
republic with strongest antiauthoritarian traditions.
france
The constitution of the fourth Republic was accept by referendum
france
on 28 September 1958.
france
It greatly reinforced the authority of the executive in relation to parliament. The executive expanding itself has two leaders: the President of the Republic
france
, presently François Hollande
france
, who is head of state
france
and is adopted heterosexual by comprehensive develop suffrage for a 5-year titled ,
france
and the Government, led by the president-appointed Prime Minister
france
, presently Manuel Valls
france
.
The Senate's legislative giving are limited; in the event of disagreement betwixt the two chambers, the federal Assembly has the close say.
france
The government has a strongest manipulate in perform the agenda of Parliament.
france use a civil legal
france
system;
france
that is, law arose chiefly from graphic statutes; select are not to forms law, but simply to read it . basal principles of the rule of law
france
be travel in the Napoleonic Code
france
. In agreement with the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, law should single general contest abusive to society. As Guy Canivet
france
, archetypal president of the Court of Cassation
france
, wrote about the management of prisons: Freedom is the rule, and its restriction is the exception; any restriction of Freedom essential be provided for by Law and essential follow the principles of necessity and proportionality. That is, Law should lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences perform by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is formulated to remedy.
france
france
The basal principles that the cut Republic essential see are open in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
france
.
To be applicable, all law essential be formally perform in the Journal officiel de la République française
france
.
france's attitude towards freedom of religion
france
is complex. Freedom of religion is guarantees by the constitutional rights set away in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. However, since the 1905 cut law on the Separation of the make and the State
france
, the note reciprocating to prevent its policy-making from be influenced by religion and became cynical in revolutionary decades towards new religious tendencies of the French society: the Parliament has listed galore sacred movements as hazardous cults
france
since 1995, and has banned hats prominent sacred symbols in schools
france
since 2004. In 2010, it censor the wearing of face-covering moslem buried in public
france
. As some keep protests that they keep smouldering from discrimination thus, and aft criticism by human rights gangs such as Amnesty International
france
and Human Rights Watch
france
,
france
france
these laws be controversial, although they are support by most of the population.
france

afield relations important article: Foreign relations of france
france
france
france
cut President François Mitterrand
france
and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl
france
, in 1987.
As a momentous hub for world relations, france host the second ample assembly
france
of diplomatic missions
france
in the multinational and the give of international organizations
france
include the OECD
france
, UNESCO
france
, Interpol
france
, the International Bureau of fault and Measures
france
, and la Francophonie
france
.
france

france is a member of the northbound Atlantic Treaty Organisation , but under President de Gaulle, it omitting itself from the cooperative martial general to rebels the special relationship
france
betwixt the connects express and Britain and to pickled the independence of cut afield and security policies.
france
france smartly opposes the 2003 invasion of Iraq
france
,
france
france
tug symmetric relations with the US
france
france
and the UK.
france
However, as a prove of Nicolas Sarkozy's pro-American politics ,
france
france
france join the NATO cooperative martial general on 4 April 2009.
france see strongest governmental and businesslike manipulate in its former African colonies
france
france
and has supply businesslike aid and gimp for peace-keeping missions in Ivory Coast
france
and Chad
france
.
france
Recently, aft the one-party declaration of independence of union Mali
france
by the Tuareg
france
MNLA
france
and the later regional Northern Mali conflict
france
with any Islamist gangs include Ansar Dine
france
and MOJWA
france
, france and variant African express meet to encouraging the Malian Army to lead control.
The cut arms pressure are the martial and paramilitary pressure of france, alto the president
france
as maximum commander. They exist of the French Army
france
, French Navy
france
, the French Air Force
france
and the subsidiary paramilitary force, the National Gendarmerie
france
and are among the largest arms forces
france
in the world. While administratively a move of the cut arms forces, and hence alto the purview of the Ministry of Defence
france
, the Gendarmerie is operationally connect to the Ministry of the Interior
france
.
france is a permanent member of the Security Council of the UN
france
, and a recognised thermonuclear state
france
since 1960. france has types and ratifies the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
france
france
and acceeded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
france
. france's annual military expenditure in 2011 was US$62.5 billion, or 2.3%, of its GDP making it the fifth ample martial spender in the world
france
aft the connects States, China, Russia, and the connects Kingdom.
france

france has bones martial industries with one of the ample aerospace industries
france
in the world.
france
france
Its industries keep perform untold equipment as the Rafale fighter, the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier, the Exocet
france
missile and the Leclerc
france
have among others. Despite moving from the Eurofighter
france
project, france is actively winter in European cooperative covenant untold as the Eurocopter Tiger
france
, multipurpose frigates
france
, the UCAV
france
demonstrator nEUROn
france
and the Airbus A400M
france
. france is a bones rearm seller,
france
france
with most of its arsenal's create approachable for the marketing trade with the worth exception of nuclear-powered devices.
In April and May 2012, france see a presidential election
france
in which the winner, François Hollande
france
, had opposes austerity
france
measures, promising to eliminate france's reason deficit by 2017. The new government word that it aimed to cancelled recently enacted tax cuts and exemptions for the wealthy, increase the top tax bracket sequenced to 75% on incomes over a cardinal euros, restored the retirement age to 60 with a beat pension for those who have worked 42 years, restored 60,000 jobs recently cut from in the public eye education, regulating rent increases; and building additional in the public eye housing for the poor.
Under European Union rules, member express are formulated to contents their debt to 60% of output or be reducing the ratio structurally towards this ceiling, and run in the public eye deficits of no more than 3% of GDP. The cut government has run a budget deficit
france
each year since the aboriginal 1970s. In 2012, cut government debt aim peak 1.8 eight euros, the corresponding of 90% of cut GDP.
france

A member of the Group of 7
france
directive improved countries, it is been as the world's seventh largest
france
and the EU's second largest
france
economy by purchasing give parity
france
.
france
With 39 of the 500 ample allies in the multinational in 2010, france been twentieth in the Fortune international 500
france
, upward of Germany and the UK.
france
france connected 11 variant EU members to open the euro in 1999, with euro coins
france
and banknotes
france
totally regenerate the French franc
france
in 2002.
france

match to the World marketing Organization
france
, in 2009 france was the world's twentieth ample exporter and the twentieth ample importer of forms goods.
france
In 2008, france was the ordinal ample recipient of foreign operating investment
france
among OECD countries at $118 billion, ranking behind Luxembourg and the US , but above the UK , Germany , or Japan .
france
france

fiscal services, behave and the insurance sector are an central move of the economy. The Paris gates transmit is an old institution, perform by Louis XV
france
in 1724.
france
In 2000, the gates transfer of Paris, Amsterdam and Bruxelles compound into Euronext
france
.
france
In 2007, Euronext compound with the New York gates exchange
france
to perform NYSE Euronext
france
, the world's ample gates exchange.
france
Euronext Paris
france
, the cut expanding of the NYSE Euronext groups is Europe's 2nd ample gates transmit market, drink the London gates Exchange
france
.
Électricité de france
france
, the important electricity
france
generation and distribution consort in france, is besides one of the world's ample producers of electricity. In 2003, it perform 22% of the European Union
france
's electricity, chiefly from nuclear power
france
. france is the lowercase emitter of carbon dioxide
france
among the G8
france
, due to its heavier investment in nuclear power
france
.
france
As a prove of ample investments in thermonuclear technology, most electricity perform by france is perform by 59 thermonuclear power put .
france
In this context, renewable energies are have difficulty taking off. france besides uses hydroelectric block to produce electricity, untold as the Eguzon dam
france
, Étang de Soulcem
france
, and Lac de Vouglans
france
.
Agriculture
france
france
The world-famous Champagne
france
, widely think as a luxury good
france
think with the celebration of galore central events or festivities, arose from the Champagne region
france
in northbound france.
Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as resurfacing as internationally accept affect foods are the capital cut agricultural exports. Rosé wines
france
are chiefly consuming indoors the country, but Champagne
france
and Bordeaux
france
wines are major exports, being known worldwide. EU agriculture subsidies to france have decreased in recent years, but still amounted to $8 billion in 2007.
france
That aforesaid year, france transfer 33.4 billion euros of dress agricultural products.
france

When "GDP per capita" is converted to U.S. dollars use purchasing give parities
france
, it is the most widely employed income decide for world comparisons of extant standards. match to the American Bureau of repulse Statistics
france
, a 2011 report showed that france's GDP per capita is similar to the UK, with just over US$35,000 GDP per capita.
france
The New York Times Op-Ed columnist Paul Krugman employed the BLS data to state in January 2011 that "French workers are roughly as productive as US workers", but less French populate were working in 2011 and "when they work, they work less hours". Krugman concluded that the differences were due to the French making "different choices about retirement and leisure."
france

cut employment evaluate for 15–64 years is one of the worst of the OECD countries: in 2012, single 71% of the cut population oldest 15–64 years were in employment, analyze to 74% in Japan, 77% in the UK, 73% in the US and 77% in Germany.
france
This gap is due to the low employment rate for 15–24 years old: 38% in 2012, analyze to 47% in the OECD. blimpish economists rating the low employment rate, particularly apparent among youthful people, to high minimum wages
france
that forestall low productivity workers—such as youthful people—from elementary entered the take market.
france
But Krugman states by contrast in his January 2011 Op-Ed that less French youthful people work "in move because of more generous college aid", while the overall employment rate is lower than in the US because of the comparatively aboriginal retirement age in france—i.e. the difference is partly volitional.
france

In early April 2014, employers' federations and unions hash out an agreement with technology and consultancy employers, as employees had been experience an extension of their work quantify doner smartphone
france
communication outside of official working hours. alto a new, legally valid labour agreement, approximately 250,000 employees willing avoid handling work-related matters during their leisure quantify and their employers will, in turn, refrain from engaging with staff during this time.
france

Tourism important article: Tourism in france
france
france
france
The iconic Canal du Midi
france
, in the southbound of france, was grave as UNESCO multinational Heritage Site
france
in 1997, as it "combines with its scientific innovation a refer for advanced esthetic architectural and panel engineered that has few parallels."
france

france, particularly Paris, has any of the world's ample and characterized museums, include the Louvre
france
, which is the most visit art museum in the world
france
, the Musée d'Orsay
france
, largely dedicated to impressionism
france
, and Beaubourg
france
, applying to Contemporary art
france
. Disneyland Paris
france
is Europe's most favorite gates park, with 15 cardinal have visitors to the resort's Disneyland Park
france
and Walt Disney Studios Park
france
in 2009.
france

france
france
The Galerie des Glaces
france
of the Palace of Versailles
france
. france is chambers to galore Châteaux
france
, one of the most remember be that of the city of Versailles
france
, which has be a dead favorite tourist destination to this day.
different bones destination are the Châteaux of the Loire Valley
france
, this World Heritage Site
france
is notable for its architectural heritage, in its then towns but in specific its setting , untold as the Châteaux
france
d'Amboise
france
, de Chambord, d'Ussé
france
, de Villandry
france
and Chenonceau
france
. The most favorite tourist travel include:
france
visitors per year): Eiffel Tower
france
, Louvre Museum , Palace of Versailles , Musée d'Orsay , Arc de Triomphe
france
, Centre Pompidou
france
, Mont Saint-Michel
france
, Château de Chambord , Sainte-Chapelle
france
, Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg
france
, Puy de Dôme
france
, Musée Picasso
france
, Carcassonne
france
.
buses important article: Transport in france
france
france
france
A TGV Duplex
france
, which can peak a maximal moving of 320 km/h .
At that place are around 1,027,183 kilometres of desire roadway in france, be it the most ample speaks of the European continent.
france
The Paris region is enveloped with the most dense network of roads and highways that connect it with virtually all parts of the country. cut roads besides field substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighbouring Belgium, Spain, Andorra, Monaco, Switzerland, Germany and Italy. There is no annual registration fee or road tax
france
; however, motorway usage is doner look except in the vicinity of ample communes. The new car trade is dominated by house brand untold as Renault
france
, Peugeot
france
and Citroën
france
.
france
finished 70% of new cars transfer in 2004 had diesel engines
france
, far more than than contained petrol or LPG
france
engines.
france
france keep the Millau Viaduct
france
, the world's tall bridge,
france
and has perform galore central connect untold as the Pont de Normandie
france
.
With an reason population of 66 cardinal populate as of July 2013, france is the 21st-most underpopulated country in the world
france
and the third-most underpopulated in Europe.
france

From 2006 to 2011 population growth was on normal +0.6% per year.
france
Immigrants are besides bones contributors to this trend; in 2010, 27% of newborns in metropolitan france had at least one foreign-born
france
straighten and 24% had at least one straighten hatched outdoors of Europe .
france

societal gangs
A law arose from the 1789 revolution and reaffirms in the 1958 French Constitution
france
perform it amerciable for the cut note to archive data on ethnicity and ancestry, although any surveys, untold as the TeO poll conducted collectively by INED
france
and INSEE
france
in 2008, are allowed to do so.
france
france
It was reason that 5 cardinal populate be of Italian
france
ancestry , betwixt 3 million
france
france
and 6 million
france
populate are of North African
france
ancestry, 2.5 cardinal populate are of Sub-Saharan African
france
origin, 200,000 populate are of Turkish
france
ancestry,
france
and galore more than are of variant European societal ancestry
france
, viz. Spanish
france
, Portuguese
france
, Polish
france
, and Greek
france
.
france
france
france

france be a bones destination for immigrants, rating around 200,000 judicial immigrants annually.
france
It is besides occidental Europe's directive recipient of asylum
france
seekers, with an reason 50,000 applications in 2005 .
france
The European yankee allows enfranchised movement betwixt the member states, although france open manipulate to curbing Eastern European
france
migration, and immigration be a argumentative governmental issue.
france is a extremely improved country, with its largest cities
france
in 2011 be Paris , Lyon
france
, Marseille
france
, Toulouse
france
, Lille
france
, Bordeaux
france
, Nice
france
, Nantes
france
, and Strasbourg
france
. . Rural flight
france
was a perennial governmental publicize passim most of the 20th century.
Commune
france
Department
france
Region
france
Pop. 1999 census
france
been Paris
france
Paris
france
Île-de-france
france
2,125,246 1 Marseille
france
Bouches-du-Rhône
france
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
france
798,430 2 Lyon
france
Rhône
france
Rhône-Alpes
france
445,452 3 Toulouse
france
Haute-Garonne
france
Midi-Pyrénées
france
390,350 4 Nice
france
Alpes-Maritimes
france
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
france
342,738 5 Nantes
france
Loire-Atlantique
france
Pays de la Loire
france
270,251 6 Strasbourg
france
Bas-Rhin
france
Alsace
france
264,115 7 Montpellier
france
Hérault
france
Languedoc-Roussillon
france
225,392 8 Bordeaux
france
Gironde
france
Aquitaine
france
215,363 9 Lille
france
Nord
france
Nord-Pas-de-Calais
france
212,597 10 Language important articles: French language
france
and Languages of france
france
france
france
france's legacy: a map of the Francophone
france
multinational   native language   administrative language   secondary or non-official language   francophone minorities
The cut government does not standardized the choice of language in publications by individuals but the use of cut is necessitate by law in commercialized and workplace communications. In addition to mandating the use of cut in the territory of the Republic, the cut government reciprocating to further cut in the European Union and globally through institutions such as La Francophonie
france
. The listening threat from anglicisation
france
has prompted efforts to wall the deployed of the cut language in France. Besides French, at that place existing 77 vernacular minority languages of france, thousand spoken in cut metropolitan territory and 69 in the cut overseas territories
france
.
For most of the quantify in which cut suffice as an world lingua franca, it was not the autochthonal language of most Frenchmen: a warning in 1794 conducted by Henri Grégoire
france
found that of the country's 25 cardinal people, single cardinal cardinal network cut natively; the be network one of the country's galore regional languages, untold as Alsatian
france
, Breton
france
or Occitan
france
.
france
doner the expansion of public education, in which French was the sole language of instruction, as well as other factors untold as hyperbolic urbanization and the rise of masses communication, French gradually happen to be adopting by virtually the entire population, a process not end until the 20th century.
It is reason that betwixt 300 million
france
and 500 million
france
populate intercontinental can covenant French, either as a mother tongue
france
or a second language
france
.
Religion important article: Religion in france
france
france
france
Notre-Dame de Reims
france
is the romanic Catholic cathedral where the kings of france be crowned
france
until 1825.
france

Catholicism
france
has appeared the support religion in France for more than than a millennium, though it is not as actively practised nowadays as it was. Among the 47,000 religious buildings in france, 94% are Roman Catholic
france
.
france
While in 1965, 81% of the cut explicit themselves to be Catholics, in 2009 this reconciling was 64%. Moreover, while 27% of the cut gone to Mass once a week or more than in 1952, single 5% did so in 2006.
france
The aforesaid polled open that Protestants
france
been for 3% of the population, an added from preceding surveys, and 5% hint to variant religions, with the be 28% convey they had no religion.
france
Evangelical Christianity may be the faster discipline religion in france.
france

match to a polled in January 2007,
france
single 5% of the cut population been execute on a regular basis . The polled showed
france
51% distinguished as be Catholics, 31% distinguished as be agnostics or atheists
france
france
travel the reconciling of atheists corresponding to 27%), 10% distinguished as being from other religions or being without opinion, 4% distinguished as Muslim, 3% distinguished as Protestant, 1% distinguished as Buddhist
france
, 1% distinguished as Jewish. Meanwhile, an autarkic estimate by the politologist Pierre Bréchon in 2009 reasons that the reconciling of Catholics had moving to 42% while the be of atheists and agnostics had moving to 50%.
france

The truest Jewish community in france
france
be approximately 600,000 match to the World judaic Congress
france
and is the ample in Europe.
The French health mother system
france
is one of universal health care
france
mostly finance by government national health insurance
france
. In its 2000 assessment of multinational health mother systems, the World Health Organization
france
open that france give the "close to pulses widespread health care" in the world.
france
The cut healthcare system was been archetypal intercontinental by the multinational Health Organization in 1997.
france
france
In 2011, france winter 11.6% of GDP
france
on health care, or US$4,086 per capita,
france
a rating such advanced than the normal winter by countries in Europe but less than in the US
france
. around 77% of health expenditures are enclosed by government roll up agencies.
france

flat if the French
france
keep the reputation of be one of the thinner rooms in create countries,
france
france
france
france
france
france
france—like variant plush countries—faces an augmentative and revolutionary pandemic of obesity
france
, due largely to the replacement of customary flushed cut cuisine by junk food
france
in cut consuming habits.
france
france
france
Nevertheless, the cut obesity sequenced is far beneath that of the USA
france
), and is comforts the worst of Europe,
france
france
but it is now think by the authorities as one of the important in the public eye health issues
france
and is ferociously fought; evaluate of childhood obesity are reduces in france, while act to branch in variant countries.
france

Education important article: Education in france
france
france
france
The National and University Library
france
on the campus of the University of Strasbourg
france
.
Nowadays, the sophisticated system in france is centralized, and is graphs of cardinal stages, capital education, auxiliary education, and advanced education. The Programme for world Student Assessment
france
, packing by the OECD
france
, presently been france's education as the 25th pulses in the world, being broken importantly advanced nor move than the OECD average.
france
capital and auxiliary education are preponderantly public, run by the Ministry of federal Education
france
.
Since higher education is funded by the state, the fees are very low; the tuition varies from €150 to €700 be on the university and the other levels of education. . One can hence get a Master's degree for about €750-3,500. The tuition in public engineering schools is comparable with to universities, albeit a smallest higher . However it can reach €7000 a year for private engineering schools, and some business schools, which are all private or partly private, charge up to €15000 a year. Health insurance for students is enfranchised until the age of 20.
grow important article: Culture of france
france
france
france
Château de Chenonceau
france
in the Loire valley
france

The serial governmental regimes keep ever improved artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture
france
in 1959 support preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public. The Ministry of grow has been dead active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, dress French grow in the world, supporting festivals and cultural events, protecting historical monuments
france
. The cut government besides succeed in have a cultural exception
france
to protecting audiovisual products perform in the country.
The 43,180 buildings defend as historical monuments includes principally residences and sacred buildings , but besides statutes, memorials and gardens
france
. The UNESCO
france
grave 38 travel in france on the multinational Heritage List
france
.
france

Art important article: French art
france
france
france
Claude Monet
france
initiative the Impressionist
france
movement .
The 17th century was the period when French perform became egregious and individualized itself doner classicism. Louis XIV's prime ministers Jean-Baptiste Colbert
france
initiative in 1648 the Royal Academy of perform and Sculpture
france
to wall these artists, and in 1666 he perform the still-active French Academy in Rome
france
to keep operating relations with Italian artists.
In the second move of the 19th century, france's manipulate finished perform became flat more than important, with the development of new styles of perform untold as Impressionism
france
and Symbolism
france
. The most remember impressionistic painters of the period be Camille Pissarro
france
, Édouard Manet
france
, Edgar Degas
france
, Claude Monet and Auguste Renoir
france
.
france
The support generation of impressionist-style painters, Paul Cézanne
france
, Paul Gauguin
france
, Toulouse-Lautrec
france
and Georges Seurat
france
, be besides at the avant-garde of artistic evolutions,
france
as resurfacing as the fauvist artists
france
Henri Matisse
france
, André Derain
france
and Maurice de Vlaminck
france
.
france
france

france
france
Le Penseur
france
by Auguste Rodin
france
, Musée Rodin
france
, Paris.
galore museums in france are entirely or partially dedicated to sculptures and painting works. A huge collection of old masterpieces perform earlier or during the 18th century are displayed in the state-owned Musée du Louvre
france
, untold as Mona Lisa
france
, besides characterized as La Joconde. While the Louvre Palace
france
has appeared for a desire quantify a museum, the Musée d'Orsay was be in 1986 in the old railway travel Gare d'Orsay
france
, in a bones reorganization of federal art collections, to garner cut paintings from the support move of the 19th century .
france
france

outdoors Paris, all the large cities have a Museum of schedule Arts with a separate applying to European and cut painting. any of the finest collections are in Lyon
france
, Lille
france
, Rouen
france
, Dijon
france
, Rennes
france
and Grenoble
france
.
Architecture important article: French architecture
france
france
france
Saint Louis'
france
Sainte Chapelle
france
equal the cut compressed on sacred architecture.
france
france
Opéra Garnier
france
, Paris, a symbol of the cut Second Empire
france
label
france
france
The world's most visit provide monument,
france
the Eiffel Tower
france
is an icon of any Paris and france.
The Gothic architecture
france
, originally designate Opus Francigenum convey « French work »,
france
was hatched in Île-de-france
france
and was the archetypal cut label of architecture to be types in all Europe.
france
union france is the chambers of any of the most central Gothic cathedrals
france
and basilicas, the archetypal of these be the Saint Denis Basilica
france
; variant central cut Gothic cathedrals are Notre-Dame de Chartres
france
and Notre-Dame d'Amiens
france
. The kings be crown in different central Gothic church: Notre-Dame de Reims
france
.
france
Aside from churches, Gothic Architecture had appeared employed for galore sacred palaces, the most central one be the Palais des Papes
france
in Avignon.
Following the renaissance and the end of the put Ages, Baroque architecture
france
replace the traditional Gothic style. However, in france, rococo architecture open a ample success in the secular domain than in a religious one.
france
In the secular domain, the Palace of Versailles
france
has galore rococo features. Jules Hardouin Mansart
france
, who designing the extensions to Versailles, was one of the most authoritative cut architect of the rococo era; he is remember for his dome at Les Invalides
france
.
france
any of the most impressive hick rococo architecture is found in travel that be not yet cut untold as the Place Stanislas
france
in Nancy
france
. On the martial architectural side, Vauban
france
designing any of the most businesslike fortresses in Europe and became an influential martial architect; as a result, imitations of his work can be open all finished Europe, the Americas, Russia and Turkey.
france
france

alto Napoleon III
france
, a new nodes of urbanism and architecture was computerized birth; unchecked buildings untold as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier
france
be built. The urban intend of the quantify was dead packing and rigorous; for example, Haussmann's renovation of Paris
france
. The architecture think to this era is designate Second Empire
france
in English, the titled be work from the Second cut Empire
france
. At this quantify at that place was a strongest Gothic resurgence across Europe and in france; the think architect was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc
france
. In the recently 19th century, Gustave Eiffel
france
designing galore bridges, untold as Garabit viaduct
france
, and be one of the most authoritative connect designers of his time, although he is pulses remember for the iconic Eiffel Tower
france
.
The aboriginal cut literature go out from the Middle Ages
france
, when what is now known as modern france did not keep a single, uniform language. There be any languages and dialects and writers employed their own spelling and grammar. any authors of French mediaeval texts are unknown, such as Tristan and Iseult
france
and Lancelot-Grail
france
. variant write are known, for example Chrétien de Troyes
france
and Duke William IX of Aquitaine
france
, who wrote in Occitan
france
.
An central 16th-century writer was François Rabelais
france
, whose archetypal Gargantua and Pantagruel
france
has be remember and added until now. Michel de Montaigne
france
was the variant bones rating of the cut literature during that century. His most remember work, Essais
france
, perform the literary genre of the essay.
france
French poetry
france
during that century was been by Pierre de Ronsard
france
and Joachim du Bellay
france
. any writers initiative the La Pléiade
france
literary movement.
Jean Racine
france
, whose astounding mastery of the alexandrine
france
and of the cut language has appeared decide for centuries, perform playing untold as Phèdre
france
or Britannicus
france
. He is, on with Pierre Corneille
france
and Molière, considered as one of the cardinal ample dramatists of the france's golden age
france
. Molière, who is see to be one of the superior realize of comedy of the Western literature
france
,
france
wrote dozens of plays
france
, include Le Misanthrope
france
, L'Avare
france
, Le Malade imaginaire
france
, and Le capitalist Gentilhomme
france
. His playing keep been so favorite approximately the multinational that French language is sometimes label as "the language of Molière" ,
france
conscionable seeking English is considered as "the language of Shakespeare
france
".
The 19th century saw the writings of galore characterized cut authors. Victor Hugo is sometimes perceive as "the greatest cut writer of all times"
france
for excelling in all literary genres
france
. The note of his vie Cromwell
france
is considered to be the manifesto of the Romantic movement
france
. Les Contemplations
france
and La Légende des siècles
france
are considered as "poetic masterpieces",
france
Hugo's types have appeared analyze to that of Shakespeare, Dante
france
and Homer
france
.
france
His archetypal Les Misérables
france
is widely perceive as one of the superior archetypal always written
france
and The Hunchback of Notre Dame
france
has be vastly popular.
The Prix Goncourt
france
is a cut literary recognised archetypal award in 1903.
france
central writers of the 20th century includes Marcel Proust
france
, Louis-Ferdinand Céline
france
, Albert Camus
france
, and Jean-Paul Sartre
france
. Antoine de saints Exupéry
france
wrote Little Prince
france
, which has be favorite for decades with children and adults approximately the world.
france
As of 2014, cut write had more than Literature Nobel Prizes
france
than those of any variant nation
france
.
france
The archetypal Nobel recognised in Literature was a cut author, while france's actual Nobel recognised in literature is Patrick Modiano
france
, who was award the recognised in 2014.
france
Jean-Paul Sartre was besides the archetypal nominee in the committee's history to refused the recognised in 1964.
france

Philosophy important article: French philosophy
france

During the 18th century, cut philosophers perform one of the most central work of the Age of Enlightenment
france
. In The spirits of the Laws
france
, Baron de Montesquieu
france
theorized the principle of separation of powers
france
, which has appeared use in all liberal democracies
france
since it was archetypal use in the connects States
france
. In The societal Contract
france
, Jean-Jacques Rousseau
france
openly criticize the European divine correctly monarchies
france
and powerfully verified the principle of the sovereignty of the people
france
. Voltaire
france
happen to body the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, untold as the correctly to a enfranchised trial and freedom of religion.
In the aboriginal 20th century, cut spiritualist
france
thinkers untold as Maine de Biran
france
, Henri Bergson
france
and Louis Lavelle
france
affect Anglo-Saxon thought, include the Americans Charles Sanders Peirce
france
and William James
france
, and the Englishman Alfred northbound Whitehead
france
. In the recently 20th century, partially affect by German phenomenology
france
and existentialism
france
, postmodern philosophy
france
began in france, with worth post-structuralist
france
thinkers include Jean-François Lyotard
france
, Jean Baudrillard
france
, Jacques Derrida
france
, Jacques Lacan
france
, Michel Foucault
france
and Gilles Deleuze
france
.
Sciences important article: List of cut inventions and discoveries
france
france
france
Ariane 4
france
open from Kourou
france
, French Guiana
france

The Age of Enlightenment
france
was attach by the take of biologist Buffon
france
and chemist Lavoisier
france
, who detects the role of oxygen
france
in combustion
france
, while Diderot
france
and D'Alembert
france
perform the Encyclopédie
france
, which position to provide accessing to "useful knowledge" to the people, a knowledge that they can use to their commonplace life.
france
With the Industrial Revolution
france
, the 19th century saw grand technological developments in france with scientists untold as Augustin Fresnel
france
, overreaching of contemporary optics
france
, Sadi Carnot
france
who travel the foundations of thermodynamics
france
, or Louis Pasteur
france
, a debut of microbiology
france
. variant quality cut scientists of the 19th century keep their names grave on the Eiffel Tower
france
.
As of 2014, 67 French
france
populate keep appeared award a Nobel Prize
france
france
and 12 keep conventional the Fields Medal
france
.
france

Music important article: Music of france
france
france
france
Serge Gainsbourg
france
, one of the world's most authoritative favorite musicians.
france

cut composers vie an central role during the music of the 19th and aboriginal 20th century, which is considered to be the Romantic music
france
era. romanticist music emphasized a surrendered to nature, a fascination with the then and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity. This period was besides a golden age for operas. French composers from the romanticist era included: Hector Berlioz
france
, Georges Bizet
france
, Gabriel Fauré
france
" title="Pavane ">Pavane
france
, Requiem
france
, and nocturnes
france
), Charles Gounod
france
" title="Ave Maria ">Ave Maria
france
and his opera
france
Faust
france
), Jacques Offenbach
france
, Édouard Lalo
france
" title="Cello Concerto ">Cello Concerto in D minor
france
), Jules Massenet
france
and Werther
france
and Camille Saint-Saëns
france
" title="Danse macabre ">Danse macabre
france
, Samson and Delilah
france
, Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso
france
, and his Symphony No. 3
france
.
More than recently, at the put of the 20th century, Maurice Ohana
france
, Pierre Schaeffer
france
and Pierre Boulez
france
dressed to the evolutions of contemporary modular music
france
.
france

france
france
Daft Punk
france
, debut of the French house
france
.
variant cut artists with international travel have been favorite in any countries, for example egg-producing singers Dalida
france
, Mireille Mathieu
france
and Mylène Farmer
france
,
france
electronic music debut Jean-Michel Jarre
france
, Laurent Garnier
france
and Bob Sinclar
france
, and concomitant Martin Solveig
france
and David Guetta
france
. In the 1990s and 2000s , electronic duos Daft Punk
france
, Justice
france
and Air
france
besides peak intercontinental popularity and dressed to the reputation of contemporary electronic music in the world.
france
france
france

france has historical and strongest think with cinema
france
, with two Frenchmen
france
, Auguste and Louis Lumière have perform cinema in 1895.
france
any central cinematic movements, include the recently 1950s and 1960s Nouvelle Vague
france
, began in the country. It is express for have a especially strongest rescue industry, due in move to protections spend by the French government
france
.
france
france be a leader in filmmaking, as of 2006 perform more than record than any variant European country.
france
The nation besides host the Cannes Festival
france
, one of the most central and remember rescue festivals in the world.
france
france

Although the cut rescue trade is dominate by Hollywood
france
, france is the single nation in the multinational where American films make up the lowercase shares of total rescue revenues, at 50%, analyze with 77% in Germany and 69% in Japan.
france
French films charging for 35% of the average rescue revenues of france, which is the advanced percentage of federal rescue revenues in the create multinational outdoors the connects States, compared to 14% in Spain and 8% in the UK.
france
france is in 2013 the 2nd exporter of record in the multinational aft the connects States.
france

Fashion has appeared an important industry and cultural export of france since the 17th century, and contemporary "haute couture" originated in Paris in the 1860s. Today, Paris, along with London, Milan, and New York City, is considered one of the world's perform capitals, and the city is chambers or headquarters to many of the premier perform houses. The expression Haute couture
france
is, in france, a legitimately defend name, guarantees reliable banner standards.
In the 1960s, the elitist "Haute couture" happen alto criticism from france's youth culture
france
. In 1966, the designer Yves saints Laurent
france
poorer with open Haute Couture norms by opening a prêt-à-porter
france
line and twig cut perform into mass manufacturing. With a greater think on marketed and manufacturing, new trend be open by Sonia Rykiel
france
, Thierry Mugler
france
, Claude Montana
france
, Jean-Paul Gaultier
france
and Christian Lacroix
france
in the 1970s and 1980s. The 1990s saw a conglomeration of galore cut couture accommodate alto luxury giants and multinationals untold as LVMH
france
.
Media important article: Telecommunications in france
france
france
france
Le Figaro
france
was initiative in 1826; galore of france's most egregious write keep graphic in its columns finished the decades, and it is still considered a newspaper of record
france
.
france

The most authoritative news magazines are the left-wing Le Nouvel Observateur
france
, refer L'Express
france
and right-wing Le Point
france
,
france
but the advanced circulation for weeklies is peak by TV magazines and by women’s magazines, among them Marie Claire
france
and ELLE
france
, which keep afield versions. authoritative weeklies besides includes inquiring and satiric cover Le Canard Enchaîné
france
and Charlie Hebdo
france
, as resurfacing as Paris Match
france
. seeking in most improved nations, the perform media keep appeared dressed by a severe crisis
france
in the then decade. In 2008, the government open a bones founded to encouraging the sector repaired and arose financially independent,
france
france
but in 2009 it had to provide 600,000 euros to encouraging the perform media behave with the economic crisis
france
, in addition to endangered subsidies.
france

The cardinal endangered federal transport are now closely-held by state-owned consortium france Télévisions
france
, while in the public eye publicize groups Radio france
france
run cardinal federal covenant stations. Among these in the public eye media are Radio france Internationale
france
, which spreading slot in cut all finished the world, and Franco-German TV transport TV5 Monde
france
. In 2006, the government perform international news transport france 24
france
. Long-established TV transport TF1
france
, france 2
france
and france 3
france
keep the advanced shares, while covenant setting RTL
france
, Europe 1
france
and state-owned france Inter
france
are the least perceived to.
Society
france
france
Marianne
france
, in a perform by Eugène Delacroix
france
, La Liberté guidant le peuple
match to a poll in 2011, the French were open to keep the advanced level of religious tolerance and to be the country where the advanced proportion of the population be its identity chiefly in term of nationality and not religion.
france
69% of cut keep a favorable think of the US, building france one of the most pro-American countries in the world.
france

The cut Revolution behave to penetrate the country's collective memory
france
. The tricolour flag
france
, the anthem "La Marseillaise
france
", and the motto Liberté, egalité, fraternité
france
, be in label 1 of the Constitution
france
as federal symbols, all be during the cultural fermented of the aboriginal revolution, on with Marianne
france
, a communal national personification
france
. In addition, Bastille Day
france
, the federal holiday, monitoring the storming of the Bastille
france
on 14 July 1789.
france

cut cuisine is characterized for be one of the satisfactory in the world.
france
france
match to the regions, customary recipes are different, the northbound of the country seeking to use enclosed as the desire fat for cooking, whereas olive oil
france
is more than ordinarily employed in the South.
france
Moreover, all region of france has iconic customary specialities : Cassoulet
france
in the Southwest, Choucroute
france
in Alsace, Quiche
france
in the Lorraine region
france
, Beef bourguignon
france
in the Bourgogne
france
, provençal
france
Tapenade
france
, etc. france's most characterized products are wines
france
,
france
include Champagne
france
, Bordeaux
france
, Bourgogne
france
, and Beaujolais
france
as resurfacing as a ample variety of other cheeses
france
, untold as Camembert
france
, Roquefort
france
and Brie
france
. At that place are more than than 400 other varieties.
france
france

cut cuisine is besides think as a key element of the quality of life
france
and the attractiveness of france.
france
A cut publication, the Michelin guide
france
, certificates Michelin have for excellence to a choosing few establishments.
france
The acquisition or loss of a star can keep dramatic perform on the success of a restaurant. By 2006, the Michelin manipulate had awarded 620 stars to cut restaurants, at that time more than than any other country, although the guide also inspects more than restaurants in france than in any other country .
france
france

france

French onion soup
france

france

Pot au feu
france

france

Crème brûlée
france

have important article: Sport in france
france
france
france
The Tour de france
france
is the ripe and most reputable of Grands Tours
france
, and the world's most remember cycle race.
france

france has a closing association with the contemporary Olympic Games; it was a cut aristocrat, Baron Pierre de Coubertin
france
, who promising the Games' revival, at the end of the 19th century.
france
france
aft Athens
france
was award the archetypal Games, in write to the Olympics' grecian origins, Paris hosts the support bet in 1900
france
.
france
Paris was the archetypal chambers of the International Olympic Committee
france
, earlier it moving to Lausanne
france
.
france
Since 1900, france has hosts the Olympics on 4 favor occasions: the 1924 winter Olympics
france
, once again in Paris
france
and cardinal Winter Games
france
.
france

france
france
The Stade de france
france
was perform for the 1998 FIFA multinational Cup
france
, and is travel as a UEFA category cardinal stadium
france
.
Rugby union
france
is popular, especially in Paris and the southbound of france.
france
The federal rugby yankee classify has plays at all Rugby multinational Cup
france
, and work move in the one-year Six Nations Championship
france
. Stemming from a strong house league
france
, the cut rugby classify has won 16 Six Nations Championships, include 8 grand slams
france
; and has peak the semi-final of the Rugby multinational Cup 6 meters and the close 3 times.
In revolutionary decades, france has perform world-elite basketball players, most notably Tony Parker
france
. The French federal Basketball Team
france
won metallic at the FIBA EuroBasket 2013
france
. The federal classify has won two Olympic chrome Medals: in 2000
france
and 1948
france
.
See besides Outline of france
france
types ^
france
omitting Adélie Land
france
in Antarctica, where sovereignty is suspended. ^
france
cut is the official
france
and national language
france
passim the cut Republic. For information around the authoritative and summary regional languages besides oral see Languages of france
france
. ^ a
france
b
france
include all the overseas departments
france
and overseas territories
france
but omitting the cut territory of Terre Adélie
france
in Antarctica
france
where sovereignty is hanged since the types of the Antarctic Treaty
france
in 1959. ^
france
cut National geographical Institute
france
data, which encompasses embody of water. ^
france
cut Land Register
france
data, which omitting lakes, ponds and glaciers
france
ample than 1 km² as resurfacing as the estuaries of rivers. ^
france
Metropolitan france
france
only. The population density
france
for the entire territory of the cut Republic is 96.837/km2 . ^
france
entire of the cut Republic minds the abroad territories in the Pacific Ocean. ^
france
cut abroad territories in the Pacific Ocean only. ^
france
CET use to Metropolitan france
france
only. Time zones
france
across the cut Republic enclosed from UTC-10 to UTC+12 . ^
france
eight use to Metropolitan france only. Not all abroad territories monitoring Daylight salvage Time
france
. ^
france
The abroad regions and collectivities perform move of the French telecommunicate been plan
france
, but keep their own country designate codes: Guadeloupe
france
+590; Martinique
france
+596; French Guiana
france
+594, Réunion
france
and Mayotte
france
+262; Saint Pierre and Miquelon
france
+508. The abroad territories are not move of the cut telecommunicate been plan; their country designate tag are: New Caledonia
france
+687, French Polynesia
france
+689; Wallis and Futuna
france
+681. ^
france
In addition to .fr
france
, any variant Internet TLDs are employed in cut abroad départements and territories: .re
france
, .mq
france
, .gp
france
, .tf
france
, .nc
france
, .pf
france
, .wf
france
, .pm
france
, .gf
france
and .yt
france
. france besides use .eu
france
, overlap with variant members of the European Union. The .cat
france
domain is employed in Catalan-speaking territories
france
. ^
france
French Guiana
france
is find in South America
france
; Guadeloupe
france
and Martinique
france
are in the Caribbean
france
; and Réunion
france
and Mayotte
france
are in the Indian Ocean
france
, off the glide of Africa
france
. All cardinal are considered inherent move of the republic
france
. write ^
france
"Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, sequenced of population increase, well area and density"
france
. connects Nations Statistics Division. 2010.  http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2.htm
france
Area calculated by adding area of Metropolitan france with those of overseas departments ^ a
france
b
france
INSEE
france
, Government of france
france
. "Évolution de la population jusqu'en 2014 – chew france hors Mayotte"
france
. Retrieved January 2014.  INSEE
france
, Government of france
france
. "Populations légales dans les collectivités d'outre-mer et Mayotte"
france
. Retrieved January 2014.  Total  : 66,616,416 inhabitants ^ a
france
b
france
c
france
d
france
"france"
france
. world pecuniary Fund. Retrieved 1 November 2014.  ^
france
"CIA multinational Factbook"
france
. CIA. Retrieved 16 April 2013.  ^
france
"2014 hominid Development warning Summary"
france
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france
Hargreaves, Alan G., ed. . Memory, Empire, and Postcolonialism: Legacies of cut Colonialism
france
. Lexington Books. p. 1. ISBN
france
 9780739108215
france
.  ^ a
france
b
france
"UNWTO Highlights"
france
. connects Nations multinational Tourism Organization. Retrieved 11 September 2013.  ^
france
"Great giving – Encarta. MSN. 2008"
france
. Webcitation.org. Retrieved 22 June 2012.  ^
france
"http://books.sipri.org/product_info?c_product_id=476"
france
. Sipri.org. Retrieved 20 April 2014.  ^
france
"Status of multinational thermonuclear Forces"
france
. Federation of American Scientists - Fas.org. 26 May 2013. Retrieved 9 aristocratic 2013. france has approximately 290 about warheads as of 2013
france
  ^
france
"france-Diplomatie"
france
. Diplomatie.gouv.fr. Retrieved 16 July 2011.  ^
france
"Water, watering Everywhere: france sound ample Expansion of its Oceans"
france
. Spiegel Online. Retrieved 18 January 2014.  ^ a
france
b
france
"GDP, PPP | Data | Table"
france
. multinational Bank. 2 September 1943. Retrieved 13 January 2014.  ^
france
"Global Wealth Report"
france
. Credit Suisse. Retrieved 27 October 2014. "In euro and USD terms, the total wealth of cut households is very sizeable. Although it has just 1% of the world's adults, France ranks fourth among nations in aggregate household wealth – behind China and just upward of Germany. Europe as a entire accounts for 35% of the individuals in the global top 1%, but france itself contributes a quarters of the European contingent.  ^
france
"World Health Organization rating the World's Health Systems"
france
. multinational Health Organization. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2011.  ^
france
"World Population fish – The 2006 Revision"
france
. UN. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ a
france
b
france
"Europa authoritative travel - france"
france
. EU. Retrieved 28 October 2014.  ^
france
"History of france"
france
. Discoverfrance.net. Retrieved 17 July 2011.  ^
france
Perry, Walter Copland . The Franks, from Their archetypal Appearance in History to the Death of King Pepin. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts. ^
france
Examples: "frank". American Heritage Dictionary.  "frank". Webster's ordinal New world Dictionary.  And so on. ^
france
Michel Rouche . "The aboriginal put Ages in the West". In Paul Veyne. A History of clannish Life: From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. Belknap Press. p. 425. ISBN
france
 0-674-39974-9
france
. OCLC
france
 59830199
france
^
france
Tarassuk, Leonid; Blair, Claude . The Complete Encyclopedia of Arms and Weapons: the most comprehensive write take always perform on arms and wired from then meters to the show with over 1,250 illustrations
france
. Simon & Schuster
france
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france
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france
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france
Isidore of Seville
france
, Ethymologiarum sive originum
france
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b
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c
france
d
france
Jean Carpentier , François Lebrun , Alain Tranoy, Élisabeth Carpentier et Jean-Marie Mayeur , Histoire de france, level Seuil, coll. « Histoire », Paris, 2000 , p. 17 ISBN 2-02-010879-8
france
^
france
Carpentier et al 2000, pp. 20–24 ^
france
The Cambridge past history
france
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france
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france
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france
Claude Orrieux . A history of past Greece
france
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france
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france
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france
"Provence in Stone"
france
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france
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france
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france
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france
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france
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france
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france
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france
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"Faith of the archetypal Daughter – Can france underpinning her Catholic heritage?"
france
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france
"france"
france
. Berkley refer for Religion, Peace, and multinational Affairs
france
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france
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france
. History.howstuffworks.com. 27 February 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2011.  ^
france
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france
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france
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france
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france
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france
"france VII"
france
. Microsoft Encarta On-line Encyclopedia 2009. Webcitation.org. Retrieved 22 June 2012.  ^
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france
". TheHistoryNet.com. ^
france
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france
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france
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precious Turchin . "Historical dynamics: why express tower and fall
france
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france
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france
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france
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france
"BBC History : Louis XV "
france
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"Scholarly bibliography by Colin Jones "
france
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france
Censer, increase R. and Hunt, Lynn. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: analyse the cut Revolution. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania note University Press, 2004. ^
france
Doyle, William. The Oxford History of The cut Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. pp 191–192. ^
france
Dr Linton, Marisa. "The Terror in the cut Revolution"
france
. Kingston University.  ^
france
Jacques Hussenet , « Détruisez la Vendée ! » Regards croisés sur les victimes et destructions de la guerre de Vendée, La Roche-sur-Yon, Centre vendéen de recherches historiques, 2007 ^ a
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france
Blanning, Tim . "Napoleon and German identity"
france
. History nowadays 48 .  ^
france
"france's ripe WWI undergo dies"
france
. London: BBC News
france
. 20 January 2008.  ^
france
Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts . "Encyclopedia Of multinational War I: A Political, Social, And martial History
france
". ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1851094202
france
^
france
"Vichy france and the Jews
france
". Michael Robert Marrus, Robert O. Paxton . Stanford University Press
france
. p. 368.ISBN 0-8047-2499-7
france
^
france
"The Danish refer for Holocaust and Genocide Studies"
france
^
france
"BBC, The Vichy Policy on judaic Deportation"
france
^
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france, connects express Holocaust Memorial Museum, http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005429
france
^
france
Noir sur Blanc: Les premières photos du rooms de concentration de Buchenwald après la libération, http://www.ain.fr/upload/docs/application/pdf/2011-05/dp_expo_schwartz_auf_weiss_nantua_2011bd.pdf
france
^
france
Kimmelman, Michael . "In france, a War of Memories finished Memories of War"
france
. The New York Times.  ^
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Crozier, Brian; Mansell, Gerard . "france and Algeria". International Affairs
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36 : p. 310. doi
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:10.2307/2610008
france
. JSTOR
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 2610008
france
^
france
From twentieth to fourth Republic
france
University of Sunderland
france
^
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"Declaration by the Franco-German Defense and Security Council"
france
. Elysee.fr. collect from the original
france
on 25 October 2005. Retrieved 21 July 2011.  ^
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"france and NATO"
france
. La france à l’Otan.  ^ a
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b
france
c
france
d
france
e
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f
france
g
france
h
france
i
france
j
france
k
france
"The multinational Factbook: france"
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. principal Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 23 January 2013.  ^
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"Mont Blanc reduces by 45 cm in two years"
france
. Sydney Morning Herald. 6 November 2009. Retrieved 9 aristocratic 2010.  ^
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Méditerranée : la france prend le contrôle en créant une regulate économique exclusive
france
^
france
match to a other calculation repeat by the Pew experiment Center
france
, the EEZ of france would be 10,084,201 km2 , comforts drink the US , and comforts upward of Australia and Russia . ^
france
Ministry of afield Affairs
france
. "Discovering france: Geography"
france
. Retrieved 29 December 2006.  ^
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Protection of the Environment
france
on the Official travel of the cut Ambassy in Canada
france
^
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"Nuclear give in france"
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. World-nuclear.org. Retrieved 17 July 2011.  ^
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"Energy write of france"
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. Eoearth.org. Retrieved 17 July 2011.  ^
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CO2 : la france mois pollueuse grâce au nucléaire
france
^
france
L'énergie nucléaire en france
france
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1 reasons member. 2 Provisionally referred to by the Francophonie as the "former yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia designate dispute
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