History of the camera

History of the camera
The history of the camera can be traced much further back than the introduction of photography
history of the camera
. Cameras create by mental act from the camera obscura
history of the camera
, and act to improved doner galore generations of photographic technology, include daguerreotypes
history of the camera
, calotypes
history of the camera
, dry plates
history of the camera
, film
history of the camera
, and digital cameras
history of the camera
.
The camera obscura
history of the camera
history of the camera
An artist use an 18th-century camera obscura to analyze an visualize
On 24 January 1544 mathematician and equip maker Reiners Gemma Frisius
history of the camera
of Leuven University
history of the camera
employed one to guard a solar eclipse
history of the camera
, perform a diagrams of his method in De covenant Astronimica et Geometrico in the following year.
history of the camera
In 1558 Giovanni Batista della Porta
history of the camera
was the archetypal to propose the method as an aid to drawing.
history of the camera

The archetypal partly boffo photograph
history of the camera
of a camera visualize was perform in around 1816 by Nicéphore Niépce
history of the camera
,
history of the camera
history of the camera
use a dead atomic camera of his own building and a join of cover cover with silver chloride
history of the camera
, which darkened where it was exposed to light. No means of removing the remaining immune chrome chloride was characterized to Niépce, so the photograph was not permanent, eventually becoming entirely darkened by the overall exposure to light necessary for viewing it. In the mid-1820s, Niépce used a sliding wooden box camera perform by Parisian opticians Charles and Vincent Chevalier to experiment with photography on surface thinly cover with Bitumen of Judea
history of the camera
.
history of the camera
The bitumen decrease improved in the bright areas of the image. The brittle bitumen was sometime change state away. One of those photographs
history of the camera
has survived.
history of the camera
history of the camera
Daguerreotype camera perform by Maison Susse Frères
history of the camera
in 1839, with a lens by Charles Chevalier Daguerreotypes and calotypes
Collodion dry plates
history of the camera
had appeared approachable since 1855, convey to the take of Désiré van Monckhoven
history of the camera
, but it was not until the invention of the gelatin
history of the camera
dry silver in 1871 by Richard Leach Maddox that they rivaled wet coat in moving and quality. Also, for the first time, cameras could be made atomic sufficient to be hand-held, or flat concealed. There was a proliferation of various designs, from single- and twin-lens reflexes to large and ample field cameras, hand-held cameras, and flat "detective cameras" buried as pocket watches, hats, or variant objects.
The use of photographic film
history of the camera
was debut by George Eastman
history of the camera
, who been perform cover rescue in 1885 earlier change by reversal to celluloid
history of the camera
in 1889. His archetypal camera, which he label the "Kodak
history of the camera
," was archetypal give for sale in 1888. It was a dead simplest box camera
history of the camera
with a fixed-focus lens and only shutter speed, which on with its relatively low determined question to the normal consumer. The Kodak happen pre-loaded with enough film for 100 exposures and needed to be travel back to the factory for processing and load when the roll was finished. By the end of the 19th century Eastman had expanded his lineup to several models including both box and folding cameras.
rescue besides allowed the movie camera
history of the camera
to discipline from an costly toy to a applicative commercialized tool.
minds for a few circumstantial copied untold as Schmidt cameras
history of the camera
, most nonrecreational astrographs
history of the camera
act to use coat until the end of the 20th century when electronic photography replace them.
35 mm
history of the camera
history of the camera
Leica I, 1925
history of the camera
history of the camera
Argus C3, 1939 See also: History of 135 film
history of the camera

Kodak got into the trade with the Retina I
history of the camera
in 1934, which announcing the 135
history of the camera
cartridge used in all modern 35 mm cameras. Although the Retina was relatively inexpensive, 35 mm cameras were still out of reach for most populate and rollfilm be the dress of choice for mass-market cameras. This changed in 1936 with the introduction of the inexpensive Argus A and to an flat greater extent in 1939 with the arrival of the immensely favorite Argus C3
history of the camera
. Although the bargain-priced cameras comforts employed rollfilm, 35 mm rescue had happen to dominate the trade by the quantify the C3 was cheeses in 1966.
The archetypal applicative reflexive camera was the Franke & Heidecke
history of the camera
Rolleiflex
history of the camera
medium format
history of the camera
TLR
history of the camera
of 1928. Though any single- and twin-lens reflex cameras had been available for decades, they be too bulky to succeed much popularity. The Rolleiflex, however, was sufficiently compact to succeed overall popularity and the medium-format TLR engineered became favorite for any high- and low-end cameras.
The archetypal bones post-war SLR innovation was the eye-level viewfinder, which archetypal been on the magyar Duflex
history of the camera
in 1947 and was better in 1948 with the Contax
history of the camera
S, the archetypal camera to use a pentaprism
history of the camera
. antecedent to this, all SLRs be supply with waist-level think screens. The Duflex was besides the first SLR with an instant-return mirror, which forestall the viewfinder from being blacked out after all exposure. This same quantify period besides saw the introduction of the Hasselblad 1600F
history of the camera
, which set the modular for moderate dress SLRs for decades.
While traditional cameras be becoming more than better and sophisticated, an exclusively new write of camera been on the trade in 1948. This was the Polaroid
history of the camera
mimic 95, the world's archetypal accomplishable instant-picture camera
history of the camera
. characterized as a Land Camera
history of the camera
aft its inventor, Edwin Land
history of the camera
, the Model 95 employed a patented chemical process to outputs finished affirmative outputs from the subject negatives in under a minute. The Land Camera caught on despite its relatively advanced price and the Polaroid lineup had expanded to dozens of models by the 1960s. The first Polaroid camera aimed at the popular market, the Model 20 Swinger
history of the camera
of 1965, was a ample success and be one of the top-selling cameras of all time.
Automation
The consecutive scientific inches happen in 1960, when the German Mec 16 SB
history of the camera
subminiature
history of the camera
became the archetypal camera to travel the lighten times drink the lens
history of the camera
for more than close metering. However, through-the-lens
history of the camera
quantify eventually became a have more than commonly found on SLRs than variant copied of camera; the first SLR supply with a TTL system was the Topcon RE Super
history of the camera
of 1962.
Digital cameras See also: Dslr § History
history of the camera

The concept of improved images on scanners, and the concept of improved video signals, predate the concept of building still dreams by improved communicate from an array of divide sensor elements. aboriginal spy satellites
history of the camera
employed the extremely complex and expensive method of de-orbit and airborne retrieval of film canisters. Technology was pushed to neglect these steps through the use of in-satellite developing and electronic scanning of the film for direct transmission to the ground. The amount of film was comforts a major limitation, and this was overcome and greatly change by the push to discipline an electronic image constitute array that could be employed instead of film. The first electronic imaging satellite was the KH-11
history of the camera
open by the NRO
history of the camera
in recently 1976. It had a charge-coupled device
history of the camera
arrange with a resolution of 800 x 800 pixels .
history of the camera
At Philips Labs in New York, Edward Stupp
history of the camera
, Pieter Cath
history of the camera
and Zsolt Szilagyi
history of the camera
filed for a procure on "All Solid State Radiation Imagers" on 6 September 1968 and constructed a flat-screen target for obtaining and storing an optical image on a matrix composed of an arrange of photodiodes joined to a capacitor to perform an arrange of two terminal devices joined in rows and columns. Their US procure was granted on 10 November 1970.
history of the camera
Texas wired create Willis Adcock
history of the camera
designing a filmless camera that was not digital and use for a procure in 1972, but it is not characterized whether it was always built.
history of the camera
The archetypal rescue act at making a digital camera was in 1975 by Steven Sasson
history of the camera
, an create at Eastman Kodak.
history of the camera
history of the camera
It employed the then-new solid-state CCD image sensor
history of the camera
segment create by Fairchild Semiconductor
history of the camera
in 1973.
history of the camera
The camera decide 8 pounds , rescue black and green images to a be cassette tape, had a resolution of 0.01 megapixels , and took 23 support to bags its archetypal visualize in December 1975. The prototype camera was a technical exercise, not intend for production.
analogue electronic cameras
history of the camera
history of the camera
Sony Mavica, 1981 important article: Still video camera
history of the camera

analogue electronic cameras do not appear to keep peak the trade until 1986 with the Canon RC-701. Canon display a prototype of this mimic at the 1984 winter Olympics
history of the camera
, perform the visualize in the Yomiuri Shinbun
history of the camera
, a nipponese newspaper. In the connects States, the archetypal publication to use these cameras for actual reportage was USA Today
history of the camera
, in its coverage of World Series baseball. Several factors held back the widespread adoption of analog cameras; the cost , poor image banner compared to film, and the missing of banner affordable printers. constitute and printing an image originally required accessing to equipment untold as a frame grabber, which was beyond the reach of the average consumer. The "video floppy" disk later had any reader devices available for think on a screen, but were never standardized as a computer drive.
US government agencies besides took a strong interesting in the comforts video concept, notably the US Navy for use as a actual quantify air-to-sea surveillance system.
Silicon Film, a proposed digital sensor cartridge for film cameras that would allow 35 mm cameras to lead digital photographs without modification was inform in recently 1998. Silicon Film was to work like a roll of 35 mm film, with a 1.3 megapixel
history of the camera
sensor drink the lens and a battery and storage unit fitting in the film holder in the camera. The product, which was never released, became progressively obsolete due to improvements in digital camera technology and affordability. Silicon Films' parent company filed for bankruptcy in 2001.
history of the camera

The arrival of align digital cameras
history of the camera
history of the camera
The archetypal movable digital SLR camera, announcing by Minolta in 1995.
history of the camera
history of the camera
Nikon D1, 1999
The archetypal digital camera of any kinder always transfer commercially was perhaps the MegaVision Tessera in 1987
history of the camera
though there is not ample documentation of its sale known. The first movable digital camera that was actually marketing commercially was sold in December 1989 in Japan, the DS-X by Fuji
history of the camera
The archetypal commercially approachable movable digital camera in the connects express was the Dycam Model 1, archetypal shipped in November 1990.
history of the camera
It was originally a commercial failure because it was black and white, low in resolution, and cost nearly $1,000 .
history of the camera
It concomitant saw retiring success when it was re-sold as the Logitech
history of the camera
Fotoman in 1992. It employed a CCD image sensor
history of the camera
, have dreams digitally, and joined heterosexual to a computer for download.
history of the camera
history of the camera
history of the camera

The setting to digital change was support by the formation of the archetypal JPEG
history of the camera
and MPEG
history of the camera
standards in 1988, which allowed image and video show to be impact for storage. The first consumer camera with a fluid crystal demonstrates on the endorse was the Casio
history of the camera
QV-10
history of the camera
create by a classify stolen by Hiroyuki Suetaka
history of the camera
in 1995. The archetypal camera to use CompactFlash
history of the camera
was the Kodak DC-25
history of the camera
in 1996.. The archetypal camera that give the ability to logs video
history of the camera
drill may keep appeared the Ricoh RDC-1
history of the camera
in 1995.
Digital camera sales act to flourish, driven by technology advances. The digital trade segmented into other categories, Compact Digital comforts Cameras, connect Cameras, Mirrorless Compacts and Digital SLRs. One of the major technology advances was the development of CMOS
history of the camera
sensors, which support tools sensor be low sufficient to change the overall adoption of camera phones.
See besides
history of the camera
history of the camera
Cinématographe Lumière at the Institut Lumière
history of the camera
, France Single-lens reflexive camera
history of the camera
Digital camera
history of the camera
History of photography
history of the camera
Photographic lens design
history of the camera
References

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