Royal society

Royal society
The President, Council, and Fellows of the royal society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge,
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ordinarily characterized as the royal society, is a learned society
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for science, and is perhaps the ripe untold society comforts in existence.
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initiative in November 1660, it was provide a Royal Charter
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by King Charles II
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as "The royal society".
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The Society nowadays acts as a technological advisor to the British government, obtaining a parliamentary grant-in-aid
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. The Society acts as the UK's Academy of Sciences
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, and roll up experiment fellowships and technological start-up companies.
Since 1967, the Society has appeared basing at 6–9 Carlton home Terrace
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, a evaluate I listed building
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in central London
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.
History opening and aboriginal years For more than instance on this topic, see Gresham College and the formation of the royal society
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.
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John Evelyn
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, who support to open the royal society
different think of the founding, see at the time, was that it was due to the manipulate of cut scientists and the Montmor Academy
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in 1657, inform of which be travel endorse to England by English scientists attending. This think was see by Jean-Baptiste du Hamel
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, Giovanni Domenico Cassini
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, Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle
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and Melchisédech Thévenot
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at the time, and has any ground in that Henry Oldenburg
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, the Society's archetypal Secretary, had been the Montmor Academy meeting.
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Robert Hooke
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, however, contested this, create verbally that:
On 28 November 1660, the 1660 committee of 12
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inform the formation of a "College for the dress of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning", which would accommodate weekly to enclosed science and run experiments. At the support meeting, Sir Robert Moray
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inform that the King
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accept of the gatherings, and a Royal Charter
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was types on 15 July 1662 which perform the "royal society of London", with Lord Brouncker
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serving as the archetypal President. A support Royal specified was signed on 23 April 1663, with the King express as the Founder and with the name of "the royal society of London for the Improvement of earthy Knowledge"; Robert Hooke was based as Curator of Experiments in November. This initial royal favour has continued, and since then every monarch has been the patron of the Society.
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At that place had appeared an act in 1667 to based a abiding "College" for the society. Michael Hunter show that this was affect by "Solomon's House
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" in Bacon's New Atlantis, and to a lesser extent by J. V. Andreae
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's Christianopolis, applying experiment institutes, instead than the colleges at Oxford
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and Cambridge
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, since the founder single intend for the Society to act as a location for experiment and discussion. The archetypal proposal was computerized by John Evelyn
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to Robert Boyle
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in a receive go out 3 September 1659; he promising a impressive scheme, with apartments for members and a central experiment institute. Similar schemes be clarifying by Bengt Skytte
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and concomitant Abraham Cowley
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, who wrote in his Proposition for the Advancement of Experimental Philosophy in 1661 of a "'Philosophical College", with houses, a library and a chapel. The Society's ideas were simpler, and only included residences for a handful of staff, but Hunter maintain an manipulate from Cowley and Skytte's ideas.
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Henry Oldenburg and Thomas Sprat
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put buses purpose in 1667, and Oldenburg's co-Secretary John Wilkins
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moving in a Council interact on 30 September 1667 to assigned a Committee "for raising contributions among the members of the society, in ordering to perform a college".
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These purpose be discipline by November 1667, but ne'er happen to anything, computerized the missing of contributions from members and the "unrealised—perhaps unrealistic"—aspirations of the Society.
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18th century
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Lord Hardwicke
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, leader of the "Hardwicke Circle" that dominate Society politics during the 1750s and '60s
The 18th century have remedies to galore of the Society's aboriginal problems. The be of Fellows had hyperbolic from 110 to approximately 300 by 1739, the reputation of the Society had hyperbolic alto the Presidency of Sir Isaac Newton
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from 1703 until his death in 1727,
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and editions of the Philosophical Transactions of the royal society
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be been regularly.
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During his quantify as President, Newton arguably mock his authority; in a challenged betwixt himself and Gottfried Leibniz
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finished the invention of infinitesimal calculus
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, he employed his deployed to assigned an "impartial" committee to select it, finally perform a warning graphic by himself in the committee's name.
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In 1705, the Society was covenant that it could no agelong specified Gresham College, and began a fish for new premises. aft unsuccessfully dedicated to Queen Anne
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for new premises, and network the trustees of seeking House if they could accommodate there, the Council obtaining two accommodate in stretching Court, Fleet Street
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, on 26 October 1710.
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This include offices, accommodation and a Collection of Curiosities. Although the overall Fellowship contained few express scientists, most of the Council were extremely regarded, and include at antithetic meters John Hadley
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, William Jones
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and Hans Sloane
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.
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Because of the laxness of Fellows in paying their subscriptions, the Society ran into financial difficulty during this time; by 1740, the Society had a deficit of £240. This act into 1741, at which aim the Treasurer began deal harshly with Fellows who had not paid.
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The business of the Society at this time act to includes the demonstration of experiments and the interpret of ceremonial and central technological papers, along with the demonstration of new technological devices and queries about technological matters from both Britain and Europe.
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Politically indoors the Society, the mid-18th century have a "Whig
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supremacy", as the so-called "Hardwicke Circle" of Whig-leaning scientists see the Society's important Offices. designate aft Lord Hardwicke
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, the gangs members include Daniel Wray
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and Thomas Birch
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, and was most egregious in the 1750s and 60s. The loops had leather adopted Secretary, and, following the resignation of Martin Folkes
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, the loops support injected a sand convert to the Presidency of Earl Macclesfield
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, whom Hardwicke support elect.
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Under Macclesfield, the Circle peak its "zenith", with members untold as knights Willoughby and Birch suffice as Vice-President and Secretary, respectively. The Circle also influenced goings-on in variant larn societies, untold as the Society of Antiquaries of London
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. aft Macclesfield's retirement, the loops had Lord Morton
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adopted in 1764, and Sir John Pringle
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adopted in 1772.
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By this point, the preceding Whig "majority" had appeared reduced to a "faction", with Birch and Willoughby no longer involved, and the loops declined in the aforesaid quantify enclose as the governmental party did in British politics alto George III
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, moving unconnected in the 1780s.
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The aboriginal 19th century has appeared perceive as a quantify of change state for the society; of 662 fellows in 1830, single 104 had dressed to the Philosophical Transactions
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. The aforesaid year, Charles Babbage
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perform Reflections on the Decline of Science in England, and on any of Its Causes, which was deeply captious of the Society. The technological Fellows of the Society were further into contest by this, and finally James South
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established a specified Committee "with a view to obtaining a auxiliary Charter from the Crown", aimed primarily at looking at ways to restrict membership. The Committee recommended that the election of Fellows take place on one day all year, that the Fellows be selected on consideration of their scientific achievements and that the number of fellows elected a year be limited to 15. This contents was increased to 17 in 1930 and 20 in 1937;
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it is presently 52.
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This had a be of effects on the Society: first, the Society's membership became almost entirely scientific, with few governmental Fellows or patrons. Second, the be of Fellows was significantly reduced—between 1700 and 1850, the be of Fellows rose from around 100 to around 750. From then until 1941, the total be of Fellows was ever between 400 and 500.
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By 1852, the congestion at Somerset House
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had hyperbolic convey to the discipline be of Fellows. Therefore, the Library Committee asked the Council to petition Her Majesty's Government to determine new facilities, with the advice be to bring all the scientific societies, untold as the Linnean
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and Geological
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societies, alto one roof. In aristocratic 1866, the government inform their intention to restoring Burlington House
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and setting the Royal Academy
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and variant societies there. The Academy moved in 1867, while variant societies joined when their facilities be built. The royal society moved at that place in 1873, taking up residence in the East Wing.
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The top floor was employed as accommodation for the Assistant Secretary, while the library was scattered over all room and the old caretaker's apartment was converted into offices. One dress was that there was not sufficient space for the office staff, which was then approximately eighty. When, for example, the Society packing the British contribution to the International Geophysical Year
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in 1954, cumulative facilities had to be open for the give outdoors Burlington House.
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The Coat of Arms of the royal society, is "in a dextral corner of a wall argent our three Lions of England, and for crest a helm adorned with a crowned adorned with florets, surmounted by an eagle of becoming colour holding in one foot a wall charged with our lions: supporters two green hounds eat with crowns", with the motto of "nullius in verba
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". John Evelyn, arouse in the aboriginal organize of the Society, had diagram out at least six accomplishable designs, but in aristocratic 1662 Charles II
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told the Society that it was allowed to use the rearm of England as part of its coat, and the Society "now resolv'd that the armes of the Society should be, a field Argent, with a canton of the armes of England; the supporters two talbots Argent; Crest, an eagle Or respects a wall with the like armes of England, viz. 3 lions. The words Nullius in verba". This was approved by Charles, who network Garter King of Arms
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to designed a diploma for it, and when the second specified was types on 22 April 1663 the rearm were provide to the President, Council and Fellows of the Society, on with their successors.
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The Society's motto, Nullius in verba
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, is Latin
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for "Take nobody's vent for it". It was adopting to meant the Fellows' determination to based facts via research and happen from Horace
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's Epistles
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, where he investigates himself to a gladiator who, have retired, is enfranchised from control.
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work and activities
doner its Science Policy Centre, the Society acts as an advisor to the European Commission
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and the connects Nations on be of science. It perform any inform a year, and qualify as the Academy of Sciences
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of the connects Kingdom.
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Since the put of the 18th century, government problems refer science be irregularly referred to the Society, and by 1800 it was perform regularly.
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perform
doner royal society Publishing, the Society perform the following journals:
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Philosophical Transactions of the royal society A
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Philosophical Transactions of the royal society B
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Proceedings of the royal society A
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Proceedings of the royal society B
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Biology Letters
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Open Biology
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royal society opening Science
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Journal of the royal society Interface
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Interface Focus
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Notes and Records: the royal society journal of the history of science
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Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the royal society
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The Society is select by its Council, which is chairs by the Society's President
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, match to a set of Statutes and be Orders. The members of Council, the President and the variant general are adopted from and by its Fellowship.
Fellows important articles: List of Fellows of the royal society
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and List of egg-producing Fellows of the royal society
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The Society besides adopted Royal Fellows, unearned Fellows, and afield Members. Royal Fellows are those members of the British Royal Family
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, equal the British Monarchy
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's role in dress and support the society, who are recommended by the Society's Council and adopted via postal vote. At that place are presently cardinal Royal Fellows: The Duke of Edinburgh
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, The Prince of Wales
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, The Duke of Kent
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, the Princess Royal
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, and The Duke of Cambridge
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.
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unearned Fellows are people who are disqualified to be adopted Fellows, but nevertheless have "rendered signal function to the cause of science, or whose election would significantly get the Society by their great experience in other walks of life". Six unearned Fellows have been adopted to date, including Baroness O'Neill of Bengarve
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.
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Foreign Members are scientists from non-Commonwealth nations "who are quality for their technological discoveries and attainments". Eight are adopted all year by the Society, and besides hold their membership for life. Foreign Members are permitted to use the post-nominal ForMemRS title, and currently number about 140.
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The Council is a exemplified of 21 Fellows, include the general , one Fellow to constitute all Sectional Committee and cardinal variant Fellows.
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The Council is tasked with ordering the Society's overall policy, managing all business related to the Society, amending, making or repealing the Society's be request and acting as trustees for the Society's possessions and estates. Members are adopted annually via a postal ballot, and truest be request mean that at least ten seats must change exchange all year.
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The Council may based a variety of Committees,
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which can includes not single Fellows but besides outdoors scientists.
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alto the Charter, the President, 2 Secretaries and the Treasurer are jointly the general of the Society.
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The truest general are:
President: Sir Paul Nurse
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Treasurer: Anthony Cheetham
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biologic Secretary: John Skehel
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animal Secretary: Alex Halliday
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afield Secretary: Martyn Poliakoff
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.
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President important article: List of Presidents of the royal society
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The truest President is Paul Nurse.
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Historically, the duties of the President keep appeared any ceremonial and social. The Cruelty to Animals Act 1876
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left the President as one of the few individuals capable of certified that a particular research on an animal was justified, and in addition he acted as the government's chief advisor on scientific matters. At the same time, the President was tasked with entertaining identified afield guests and scientists.
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abiding give
The set forth at 6–9 Carlton home Terrace
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is a evaluate I travel making and the truest give of the royal society, which had moving at that place from Burlington House
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in 1967.
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The ground catch and basement are used for ceremonies, social and publicity events, the first catch host facilities for Fellows and Officers of the Society, and the support and ordinal floors are episodic betwixt offices and accommodation for the President, Executive Secretary and Fellows.
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The archetypal Carlton home was designate aft Baron Carleton
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, and was transfer to Lord Chesterfield
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in 1732, who see it on trust
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for Frederick, Prince of Wales
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. Frederick see his act at that place until his death in 1751, aft which it was occupied by his setting until her death in 1772. In 1783, the then-Prince of Wales George
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obtaining the house, introduced his architect Henry Holland
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to totally change it. When George became King, he authorised the demolition of Carlton House, with the order that the replacement be a residential area. John Nash
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finally end a design that saw Carlton home move into two block of houses, with a space in betwixt them.
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The making is comforts closely-held by the Crown Estates
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and mere by the Society; it improved a bones renovation from 2001 to 2004 at the be of £9.8 million, and was re-opened by the Prince of Wales
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on 7 July 2004.
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In 2009 Chicheley Hall
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, a evaluate I travel making find happen Milton Keynes
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, was obtaining by the royal society for £6.5 million, roll up in move by the Kavli Foundation
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.
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The Royal Society winter several million on renovations adapting it to become the "Kavli royal society world Centre", a venue for residential science seminars. The Centre see its first scientific interact on 1 June 2010 and was formally open on 21 June 2010.
accept important article: Awards, training and medals of the royal society
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